Nikki Giovanni, byname of Yolande Cornelia Giovanni, Jr., (born June 7, 1943, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.), American poet whose writings ranged from calls for black power to poems for children and intimate personal statements.
Giovanni grew up in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Knoxville, Tennessee, and in 1960 she entered Nashville's Fisk University. By 1967, when she received a B.A., she was firmly committed to the civil rights movement and the concept of black power. In her first three collections of poems, Black Feeling, Black Talk (1968), Black Judgement (1968), and Re: Creation (1970), her content was urgently revolutionary and suffused with deliberate interpretation of experience through a black consciousness.
Giovanni's experiences as a single mother then began to influence her poetry. Spin a Soft Black Song (1971), Ego-Tripping (1973), Vacation Time (1980), The Sun Is So Quiet (1996), and I Am Loved (2018) were collections of poems for children. Loneliness, thwarted hopes, and the theme of family affection became increasingly important in her poetry during the 1970s. She returned to political concerns in Those Who Ride the Night Winds (1983), with dedications to black American heroes and heroines. Her later poetry collections included Love Poems (1997) and Bicycles (2009). Chasing Utopia (2013) features poetry, prose, and recipes. In Gemini (1971) she presented autobiographical reminiscences, and Sacred Cows...and Other Edibles (1988) was a collection of her essays.
From the late 1960s Giovanni was a popular reader of her own poetry, with performances issued on several recordings, and a respected speaker as well. She taught at various universities, including Virginia Tech. In 2007 the school was the site of a mass shooting. The gunman was a former student of Giovanni's, and she had earlier alerted school authorities about his troubling behaviour. At a memorial service she gave a powerful reading of a poem she had written following the tragedy.