Nawal El Saadawi, also spelled Nawal al-Sa?dawi, (born Oct. 27, 1931, Kafr Tahlah, Egypt), Egyptian public health physician, psychiatrist, author, and advocate of women's rights. Sometimes described as "the Simone de Beauvoir of the Arab world," El Saadawi was a feminist whose writings and professional career were dedicated to political and sexual rights for women.
El Saadawi was educated at Cairo University (M.D., 1955), Columbia University in New York (M.P.H., 1966), and ?Ayn Shams University in Cairo (where she performed psychiatric research in 1972-74). In 1955-65 she worked as a physician at Cairo University and in the Egyptian ministry of health, and in 1966 she became the director-general of the health education department within the ministry. In 1968 she founded Health magazine, which was shut down by Egyptian authorities several years later, and in 1972 she was expelled from her professional position in the ministry of health because of her book Al-mar?ah wa al-jins (1969; Women and Sex), which was condemned by religious and political authorities. El Saadawi was jailed in September 1981, and during the two months of her imprisonment she wrote Mudhakkirat fi sijn al-nisa? (1984; Memoirs from the Women's Prison) on a roll of toilet paper using a smuggled cosmetic pencil.
In 1982 El Saadawi founded the Arab Women's Solidarity Association (AWSA) and later served as editor of the organization's publication, Al-nun. In 1991 the government closed down Al-nun and then, several months later, AWSA itself. Due to her outspoken views, El Saadawi continued to face frequent legal challenges from political and religious opponents, including accusations of apostasy. In 2002 a legal attempt was made by an Islamist lawyer to forcibly divorce her from her husband, and in May 2008 she won a case that had been brought against her by al-Azhar University, the major centre of Islamic learning, that included charges of apostasy and heresy.
El Saadawi's novels, short stories, and nonfiction deal chiefly with the status of Arab women, as in Mudhakkirat tabibah (1960; Memoirs of a Woman Doctor), Al-khayt wa al-jidar (1972; The Thread and the Wall), Al-wajh al-?ari li al-mar?ah al-arabiyyah (1977; The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World), Al-hubb fi zaman al-naft (1993; Love in the Kingdom of Oil), and Al-riwayah (2004; The Novel). The oppression of women by men through religion is the underlying theme of El Saadawi's novel set in a mental institution, Jannat wa Iblis (1992; Jannat and Iblis). The female protagonists are Jannat, whose name is the plural of the Arabic word for paradise, and Iblis, whose name refers to the devil.