Nathaniel Hawthorne (July 04, 1804 - May 19, 1864)
Born: 4th July, 1804
Died: 19th May, 1864
Nationality: American
Profession/Occupation: Novelist
Region: Salem, Massachusetts, Plymouth, New Hampshire
Notable works: "The Scarlet Letter", "The Marble Faun", "The Celestial Railroad", "Roger Malvin's Burial", "Twice-Told Tales", "Young Goodman Brown", "The House of the Seven Gables", "My Kinsman, Major Molineux", "Mosses from an Old Manse", "Doctor Heidegger's Experiment"

Nathaniel Hawthorne Facts

Biography

Nathaniel Hawthorne, (born July 4, 1804, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.--died May 19, 1864, Plymouth, New Hampshire), American novelist and short-story writer who was a master of the allegorical and symbolic tale. One of the greatest fiction writers in American literature, he is best known for The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851).

Early years

Hawthorne's ancestors had lived in Salem since the 17th century. His earliest American ancestor, William Hathorne (Nathaniel added the w to the name when he began to write), was a magistrate who had sentenced a Quaker woman to public whipping. He had acted as a staunch defender of Puritan orthodoxy, with its zealous advocacy of a "pure," unaffected form of religious worship, its rigid adherence to a simple, almost severe, mode of life, and its conviction of the "natural depravity" of "fallen" man. Hawthorne was later to wonder whether the decline of his family's prosperity and prominence during the 18th century, while other Salem families were growing wealthy from the lucrative shipping trade, might not be a retribution for this act and for the role of William's son John as one of three judges in the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692. When Nathaniel's father--a ship's captain--died during one of his voyages, he left his young widow without means to care for her two girls and young Nathaniel, aged four. She moved in with her affluent brothers, the Mannings. Hawthorne grew up in their house in Salem and, for extensive periods during his teens, in Raymond, Maine, on the shores of Sebago Lake. He returned to Salem in 1825 after four years at Bowdoin College, in Brunswick, Maine. Hawthorne did not distinguish himself as a young man. Instead, he spent nearly a dozen years reading and trying to master the art of writing fiction.

First works

In college Hawthorne had excelled only in composition and had determined to become a writer. Upon graduation, he had written an amateurish novel, Fanshawe, which he published at his own expense--only to decide that it was unworthy of him and to try to destroy all copies. Hawthorne, however, soon found his own voice, style, and subjects, and within five years of his graduation he had published such impressive and distinctive stories as "The Hollow of the Three Hills" and "An Old Woman's Tale." By 1832, "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" and "Roger Malvin's Burial," two of his greatest tales--and among the finest in the language--had appeared. "Young Goodman Brown," perhaps the greatest tale of witchcraft ever written, appeared in 1835.

His increasing success in placing his stories brought him a little fame. Unwilling to depend any longer on his uncles' generosity, he turned to a job in the Boston Custom House (1839-40) and for six months in 1841 was a resident at the agricultural cooperative Brook Farm, in West Roxbury, Massachusetts. Even when his first signed book, Twice-Told Tales, was published in 1837, the work had brought gratifying recognition but no dependable income. By 1842, however, Hawthorne's writing had brought him a sufficient income to allow him to marry Sophia Peabody; the couple rented the Old Manse in Concord and began a happy three-year period that Hawthorne would later record in his essay "The Old Manse."

The presence of some of the leading social thinkers and philosophers of his day, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Thoreau, and Bronson Alcott, in Concord made the village the centre of the philosophy of Transcendentalism, which encouraged man to transcend the materialistic world of experience and facts and become conscious of the pervading spirit of the universe and the potentialities for human freedom. Hawthorne welcomed the companionship of his Transcendentalist neighbours, but he had little to say to them. Artists and intellectuals never inspired his full confidence, but he thoroughly enjoyed the visit of his old college friend and classmate Franklin Pierce, later to become president of the United States. At the Old Manse, Hawthorne continued to write stories, with the same result as before: literary success, monetary failure. His new short-story collection, Mosses from an Old Manse, appeared in 1846.

Return to Salem

A growing family and mounting debts compelled the Hawthornes' return in 1845 to Salem, where Nathaniel was appointed surveyor of the Custom House by the Polk administration (Hawthorne had always been a loyal Democrat and pulled all the political strings he could to get this appointment). Three years later the presidential election brought the Whigs into power under Zachary Taylor, and Hawthorne lost his job; but in a few months of concentrated effort, he produced his masterpiece, The Scarlet Letter. The bitterness he felt over his dismissal is apparent in "The Custom House" essay prefixed to the novel. The Scarlet Letter tells the story of two lovers kept apart by the ironies of fate, their own mingled strengths and weaknesses, and the Puritan community's interpretation of moral law, until at last death unites them under a single headstone. The book made Hawthorne famous and was eventually recognized as one of the greatest of American novels.

Determined to leave Salem forever, Hawthorne moved to Lenox, located in the mountain scenery of the Berkshires in western Massachusetts. There he began work on The House of the Seven Gables (1851), the story of the Pyncheon family, who for generations had lived under a curse until it was removed at last by love.

At Lenox he enjoyed the stimulating friendship of Herman Melville, who lived in nearby Pittsfield. This friendship, although important for the younger writer and his work, was much less so for Hawthorne. Melville praised Hawthorne extravagantly in a review of his Mosses from an Old Manse, and he also dedicated Moby Dick to Hawthorne. But eventually Melville came to feel that the friendship he so ardently pursued was one-sided. Later he was to picture the relationship with disillusion in his introductory sketch to The Piazza Tales and depicted Hawthorne himself unflatteringly as "Vine" in his long poem Clarel.

In the autumn of 1851 Hawthorne moved his family to another temporary residence, this time in West Newton, near Boston. There he quickly wrote The Blithedale Romance, which was based on his disenchantment with Brook Farm. Then he purchased and redecorated Bronson Alcott's house in Concord, the Wayside. Blithedale was disappointingly received and did not produce the income Hawthorne had expected. He was hoping for a lucrative political appointment that would bolster his finances; in the meantime, he wrote a campaign biography of his old friend Franklin Pierce. When Pierce won the presidency, Hawthorne was in 1853 rewarded with the consulship in Liverpool, Lancashire, a position he hoped would enable him in a few years to leave his family financially secure.

Last years

The remaining 11 years of Hawthorne's life were, from a creative point of view, largely anticlimactic. He performed his consular duties faithfully and effectively until his position was terminated in 1857, and then he spent a year and a half sight-seeing in Italy. Determined to produce yet another romance, he finally retreated to a seaside town in England and quickly produced The Marble Faun. In writing it, he drew heavily upon the experiences and impressions he had recorded in a notebook kept during his Italian tour to give substance to an allegory of the Fall of man, a theme that had usually been assumed in his earlier works but that now received direct and philosophic treatment.

Back in the Wayside once more in 1860, Hawthorne devoted himself entirely to his writing but was unable to make any progress with his plans for a new novel. The drafts of unfinished works he left are mostly incoherent and show many signs of a psychic regression, already foreshadowed by his increasing restlessness and discontent of the preceding half dozen years. Some two years before his death he began to age very suddenly. His hair turned white, his handwriting changed, he suffered frequent nosebleeds, and he took to writing the figure "64" compulsively on scraps of paper. He died in his sleep on a trip in search of health with his friend Pierce.

Major novels

The main character of The Scarlet Letter is Hester Prynne, a young married woman who has borne an illegitimate child while living away from her husband in a village in Puritan New England. The husband, Roger Chillingworth, arrives in New England to find his wife pilloried and made to wear the letter A (meaning adulteress) in scarlet on her dress as a punishment for her illicit affair and for her refusal to reveal the name of the child's father. Chillingworth becomes obsessed with finding the identity of his wife's former lover. He learns that Hester's paramour is a saintly young minister, Arthur Dimmesdale, and Chillingworth then proceeds to revenge himself by mentally tormenting the guilt-stricken young man. Hester herself is revealed to be a compassionate and splendidly self-reliant heroine who is never truly repentant for the act of adultery committed with the minister; she feels that their act was consecrated by their deep love for each other. In the end Chillingworth is morally degraded by his monomaniac pursuit of revenge, and Dimmesdale is broken by his own sense of guilt and publicly confesses his adultery before dying in Hester's arms. Only Hester can face the future optimistically, as she plans to ensure the future of her beloved little girl by taking her to Europe.

The House of the Seven Gables is a sombre study in hereditary sin based on the legend of a curse pronounced on Hawthorne's own family by a woman condemned to death during the witchcraft trials. The greed and arrogant pride of the novel's Pyncheon family down the generations is mirrored in the gloomy decay of their seven-gabled mansion, in which the family's enfeebled and impoverished poor relations live. At the book's end the descendant of a family long ago defrauded by the Pyncheons lifts his ancestors' curse on the mansion and marries a young niece of the family.

In The Marble Faun a trio of expatriate American art students in Italy become peripherally involved to varying degrees in the murder of an unknown man; their contact with sin transforms two of them from innocents into adults now possessed of a mature and critical awareness of life's complexity and possibilities.

Legacy

Hawthorne's high rank among American fiction writers is the result of at least three considerations. First, he was a skillful craftsman with an impressive arthitectonic sense of form. The structure of The Scarlet Letter, for example, is so tightly integrated that no chapter, no paragraph, even, could be omitted without doing violence to the whole. The book's four characters are inextricably bound together in the tangled web of a life situation that seems to have no solution, and the tightly woven plot has a unity of action that rises slowly but inexorably to the climactic scene of Dimmesdale's public confession. The same tight construction is found in Hawthorne's other writings also, especially in the shorter pieces, or "tales." Hawthorne was also the master of a classic literary style that is remarkable for its directness, its clarity, its firmness, and its sureness of idiom.

A second reason for Hawthorne's greatness is his moral insight. He inherited the Puritan tradition of moral earnestness, and he was deeply concerned with the concepts of original sin and guilt and the claims of law and conscience. Hawthorne rejected what he saw as the Transcendentalists' transparent optimism about the potentialities of human nature. Instead he looked more deeply and perhaps more honestly into life, finding in it much suffering and conflict but also finding the redeeming power of love. There is no Romantic escape in his works, but rather a firm and resolute scrutiny of the psychological and moral facts of the human condition.

A third reason for Hawthorne's eminence is his mastery of allegory and symbolism. His fictional characters' actions and dilemmas fairly obviously express larger generalizations about the problems of human existence. But with Hawthorne this leads not to unconvincing pasteboard figures with explanatory labels attached but to a sombre, concentrated emotional involvement with his characters that has the power, the gravity, and the inevitability of true tragedy. His use of symbolism in The Scarlet Letter is particularly effective, and the scarlet letter itself takes on a wider significance and application that is out of all proportion to its literal character as a scrap of cloth.

Hawthorne's work initiated the most durable tradition in American fiction, that of the symbolic romance that assumes the universality of guilt and explores the complexities and ambiguities of man's choices. His greatest short stories and The Scarlet Letter are marked by a depth of psychological and moral insight seldom equaled by any American writer.

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An Analysis Of Young Goodman Brown
Most criticism and reflection of Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown" centers on the theme of good versus evil. Critics, also, controversy interpretations of the key character's awareness; is Young Goodman Brown awake or thinking? What is certain is that he lives and dies in pain because his idea in his righteousness leads him to isolate himself from his community. It is, also, sure that Hawthorne's interpretation of Brown's "mid-life crisis" has doubt and leaves the audience with many different feelings in what and why certain things have happened. Hawthorne's use of symbolism in..
Analysis WITH THE Ministers Dark colored Veil
All humans do not know someone else's life inclusively. Therefore, is concealing numerous aspects and conducted activities, which identifies his/her individuality, from the surroundings and individuals around him/her. Despite shaking hands, greeting, and initiating a chat, no person will justly comprehend the true figure hiding within the bare face of an individual. Nathaniel Hawthorne portrays this idea in his short storyline, "The Minister's Dark colored Veil", to convey that humans harbor some kind of "top secret sin" within them. This secret sin, which he talks about throughout..
Emily Dickinson And Nathaniel Hawthorne British Literature Essay
American poet, Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, on December. 10, 1830. She is considered as one of the greatest poets in the English language. She was raised in a family group of strong puritan values and the protestant religious beliefs and the education that she received affected his later works. Although, unlike founded custom, Emily Dickinson received an education that recently was reserved for men only. Soon she made a decision to withdraw from the world, retaining contact only with a few friends. At twenty-three, Dickinson was aware of his own vocation almost mystical,..
English Books Essays - Witchcraft Goodman Brown
Witchcraft Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown The environment of the story is in the 17th century in Salem, Massachusetts where the centre of witchcraft took place in history. Like a backgrounder, during those times, most people believed in witchcraft. The perception originated from Europe where 500, 000 people were executed for it between 15th and 17th centuries. Prior to the outbreak of witchcraft, nearly 300 people have been indicted of witchcraft plus more than 30 have been hanged. Both men and women have been jailed and executed those times. Everyone who was accused of witchcraft..
Guilt WITHIN THE Scarlet Letter British Literature Essay
In Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Notice, the main characters struggle to overcome sin, guilt, and public humiliation in Puritan New Great britain society. In the very beginning of the novel, Hester Prynne is led to the scaffold to serve her punishment for committing adultery, a crime in Puritan culture. In addition to sitting on the scaffold to be publicly condemned, Hester also must wear a scarlet notice "A" to symbolize her sin of adultery. The townspeople, including Hester's estranged husband Roger Chillingworth, seek to disclose the personal information of Hester's lover and..
Hypocrisy In The Scarlet Letter British Literature Essay
The seventeenth century novel, the Scarlet Notice, by Nathaniel Hawthorne commences with Hester Prynne, a female living in colonial Boston. She is billed with adultery and her abuse is to once and for all wear a noticeable token of her sin. The mark, a scarlet letter "A", causes public humiliation all over the place she travels. Throughout the book, the narrator presents Dimmesdale, the holy man who she's an affair with, and Chillingworth, her spouse who is searching for revenge. The Scarlet Notice mainly targets the interactions of the characters and how they react to Hester's sin. Hester's..
Impact of Money on Happiness
The love of money, as the saying goes, is the root of all evil. Yet money remains an essential commodity in living. It really is a general need that is pursued the best way or the other world over. There are several amenities in life that can largely only be purchased by money; hence having less it can speedily reduce a person, anybody into problems and circumstances of major depression. Money is obtained by several means; for most people of certain ages, to obtain money methods to simply work for this. For others of younger and even aged age groups, their acquisition of money is basically determined..
Irony in Rip Truck Winkle
Keywords: rip vehicle winkle irony, humor in rip van winkle Washington Irving used very much irony in his brief story Rip Van Winkle. The subject personality is a younger married Dutch American who has a sort and generous mother nature. The main identity is found in Catskill Mountains of New York way prior to the American Revolution. Reluctant to profitable labor, the character prefers rambles within the mountains, relaxing under the shade gossiping with his buddies moreover, using the community children (Irving 105). Washington advances the thesis of the story by use of irony. After meandering..
Mirrors and reflections: Nathaniel Hawthorne
Mirrors and Reflections Mirror images reflect Nathaniel Hawthorne's view of the Puritan society, his subject matter of humanity, and different significances of sin throughout that time period. Not only are these shown through the heroes, but it also reveals the character types' true being. Throughout the novel, characters continually try to conceal their true personal from the society. However, their reflections continue steadily to magnify their own imperfection, revealing their true motives. Reflections and mirror images amplify the characters' imperfections due to way they..
Nathaniel Hawthornes Short History Young Goodman Brown English Books Essay
This newspaper is a theory-based critical evaluation of "Young Goodman Dark brown" compiled by Nathaniel Hawthorne. This paper is intended to address the type of individual, especially the goodness and badness of Man. To fulfill this goal, I used the theory of Yin-Yang; because it illustrates the nature of Man well. Yin and Yang although refer to two opposing areas of objects, they aren't independent. I believe that, the same is the human dynamics. Everyone has both white and the dark area in his characteristics, the important thing is that how to provide a balance between both of these dependant..
The Scarlet Letter Essay
One of the most well-known and popular stories written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is The Scarlet Letter. Basically, this book shows readers the life in puritan colonies and how religion can affect it. It evolves around Hester Prynne, and if you are assigned to write creative essays about it, you can choose from a wide range of interesting and original topics. Make sure you come up with some fresh ideas, but this task can be a bit hard because this book is famous and well-studied. Try to take familiar the scarlet letter essay topics and discuss them from a different point of view or angle. Besides, you can..
The Scarlet Letter | Figure Analysis
Dimmesdale is the key male identity in the world famous novel The Scarlet Letter, which is the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Although Dimmesdale commits adultery, it is not until the final area of the book that he confesses his criminal offense. From the time he commits adultery to enough time he confesses his offense, everyday, he's tortured emotionally. The conflicts of superego and id are best manifested in Dimmesdale. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the internal situation of Arthur Dimmesdale predicated on Freud's mental theory, especially the idea of id, ego and superego. Illustration..
The Wives Of The Dead English Books Essay
The Wives on the Dead is one of Hawthornes less kept in mind tales from a series of early tales he published in 1832. The storyplot occurs in early eighteenth century Massachusetts Bay. Mary and Margaret will be the two main characters, they are sister in laws who are attracted closer together because both their man pass away within two successive days and nights. However the report is not as simple as the plot. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses his prolonged visual descriptions to make a symbolic and almost supernatural record. If the storyline is read quickly the reader may make the fault of thinking its..
Young Goodman Dark brown | Analysis
The conflicts between your everyday battles and pushes of good and bad are portrayed the story, "Young Goodman Brown". Nathaniel Hawthorne uses many symbolic elements, from the personas names in the story and throughout until it's delusional closing. They show us that sin is an integral part of human nature and this no man is perfect beyond any means. The existence of evil appears as Dark brown begins on his trip. "He previously used a dreary road, darkened by all the gloomiest trees of the forest, which hardly stood away to let the narrow route creep through, and shut down immediately behind it...
Young Goodman Dark brown vs. Yellow Wallpaper
A young, innocent man who bids his farewell to his wife before traversing through the dark, gloomy forest of Salem for an mysterious errand. Young Goodman Dark brown, compiled by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is known to be considered a man that is seriously rooted in his trust and shows no temptation, responding in such repulsion as he not only deepens further into the woods, but uncovers the secrecy of sins and evil within the folks of his village. His wife, Beliefs, a representation of all purity and innocence was seen to be his "savior" through his confusions of tainted evil brains of every person on the..
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