Milutin Milankovitch (May 28, 1879 - December 12, 1958)
Born: 28th May, 1879
Died: 12th December, 1958
Region: Croatia, Belgrade, Serbia
Notable works: "Canon of Insolation and the Ice-Age Problem", "Kroz vasionu i vekove: pisma jednog astronoma"

Milutin Milankovitch Facts

Biography

Milutin Milankovitch, Milankovitch also spelled Milankovic or Milankovich, (born May 28, 1879, Dalj, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia]--died December 12, 1958, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), Serbian mathematician and geophysicist, best known for his work that linked long-term changes in climate to astronomical factors affecting the amount of solar energy received at Earth's surface. His ideas were published in a series of papers and eventually brought together in his influential book Kanon der Erdbestrahlung und seine Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem (1941; Canon of Insolation and the Ice-Age Problem).

Early life

Milankovitch was born into a large well-to-do Serbian family. After local schooling, he traveled to Vienna at age 17 to study engineering at the Technische Hochschule (College of Technology). After graduation and a short hiatus for military service, he returned to Vienna and earned a doctorate in 1904 for theoretical research on concrete and the design of concrete structures. That led to a successful but short career as an engineer working on complex projects throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During that period he devised and patented new approaches to concrete construction.

In 1909 Milankovitch left Vienna and took up a professorship in applied mathematics at the University of Belgrade, where he remained until retirement 46 years later. He was a popular teacher, but his true passion was research. He sought to apply his mathematical skills to areas that had not yet been extensively studied. Milankovitch wanted, he said, to find an "arable field" that he could "cultivate with my mathematical tools," and he found it in meteorology, which was at the time predominantly an empirical science--that is, a science that relied on observation.

Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch's goal was to calculate the temperature at different points on the surface of Earth at different times of year from axioms, or first principles. That was a formidable problem. However, his initial calculations, published in Theorie mathematique des phenomenes thermiques produits par la radiation solaire (1920; "Mathematical Theory of Thermal Phenomena Caused by Solar Radiation"), gave results that were roughly in line with empirical data concerning early 20th-century temperatures, and they thus immediately attracted the attention of meteorologists. In 1924, in collaboration with German meteorologist Vladimir Koppen and German geophysicist Alfred Wegener, who were then working on the causes of ice ages, Milankovitch extended his longhand calculations hundreds of thousands of years into the past to assess the effect of known regular changes in three astronomical parameters: the obliquity (tilt) of Earth's axis of rotation, the precession (wobblelike movement) of the rotation axis, and the eccentricity (a measure of the elliptical shape) of Earth's orbit around the Sun. Those three parameters govern the amount of solar radiation (insolation) that strikes Earth's surface at different latitudes in different seasons. Because they operate on different timescales, the parameters affect climate by interacting in a manner that sometimes increases and sometimes decreases the insolation at a particular location.

Milankovitch worked tirelessly to construct the radiation curves at latitudes 55?, 60?, and 65? N--which were deemed most important for affecting the advance and retreat of large-scale ice caps in the Northern Hemisphere--that appeared in Die Klimate der geologischen Vorzeit (1924; "Climate of the Geological Past") by Wegener and Koppen. Curves for selected lower latitudes were presented in Milankovitch's Mathematische Klimalehre und astronomische Theorie der Klimaschwankungen (1930; "Mathematical Climatology and the Astronomical Theory of Climatic Changes"). Both sets of calculations were contained within his masterwork, the Kanon of 1941.

Milankovitch's work was challenged during the 1950s, and it soon fell out of favour. Most scientists thought that Milankovitch's predicted temperature changes were too minor to choreograph the advance and retreat of glaciers. Perhaps more important, several European glacial deposits with ages that coincided with Milankovitch's predicted cool periods turned out not to be glacial deposits at all, and that development cast doubt on the principal evidence used to support his theory.

His work was vindicated in the 1970s, however. High-resolution studies of deep-sea cores confirmed that glacial periods, as reflected in seawater temperatures, precisely follow Milankovitch's predictions over roughly the past one million years. Those studies provided evidence for cyclical climate change in the past with periods of approximately 100,000, 41,000, and 23,000 years, coinciding with the astronomical cycles in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession, respectively. The astronomically timed variations in solar radiation are now known as Milankovitch cycles.

Other interests

Milankovitch was interested in making science accessible to nonscientists. For several years in the 1920s he wrote a monthly "letter" in a Serbian magazine to a young imaginary friend, in which he described mental journeys into the past to visit famous scientists and explore their ideas, especially as they related to astronomy. The letters were later collected and published as the book Kroz vasionu i vekove: pisma jednog astronoma (1928; "Through Distant Worlds and Times: Letters from a Wayfarer in the Universe").

Milutin Milankovitch essays

Explore Related Essays
Eco-translatoloty: british translation of china classics
Study on the introduction of British Translation of Chinese language Classics from the perspective of Eco-translatology Keywords: Ecological Translation Studies, the Chinese language classics, translation, traditional culture, development pattern. Abstract. Eco translation studies is the use of ecological rationality, from the point of view of ecological integrity of research conducted overview of translation. Ecological Studies on translation and ethnical..
Essay about economics
Nowadays, the financial crisis is one of the most popular subjects discussed by college and high school students in their academic papers. Think about it if you need to write a great essay about economics because this topic is quite modern and hot. The best part is that you’re actually living at the period of its happening, and this is what provides you with a unique opportunity to present a subjective opinion from both economic and financial points of view. Writing an excellent..
Interest formula
Suppose there is an account or a particular investment. If we would like to calculate the interest on that account, then we will have to make use of the compound interest formula. The amount in consideration is the amount that is reinvested. So based on compounding effect, the investment will bear a good amount. But before going straight to the interest formula, let us start by talking about the concept of compounding since, in order to understand compound interest, you will have..
Minimal intervention minimally invasive dentistry health and social good care essay
Dentistry has very much shifted from an invasive to a more conservative approach over the years. This is credited to a protracted understanding of the nature of the disease and its process and learning about more effective methods of treatment instead of the traditional "cut, drill and fill" technique. Hence, the idea of minimally invasive and minimal involvement dentistry is currently gathering popularity in modern dentistry. Minimal involvement is today's medical..
The role of ladies in the center east
There are over half a billion ladies in the Muslim World in Midsection East. They can be in A lot of the world absence support of the essential functions of the individuals life. Their social Position is low and they receive lack respect by the men. Women in the Middle East are also less nourished than men, less healthy, less opportunity but more susceptible to assault and sexual misuse. Women in Middle East are discriminated by men, faith or even regulation. They are much less likely..
The shehri dialect in southern oman english language essay
The UNESCO atlas of endangered languages has stated that Shehri Words is at risk of disappearing, predicated on Johnston (1982). The purpose of this newspaper is to research at which level of endangerment the terminology is. This research has been conducted based on interviews with representatives from each part of the country, and syndication of your questionnaire to females and men Shehri speakers. Fundamentally, the study has discovered that the Shehri words is an extremely..
The turning points in three stories english literature essay
One of the most crucial aspects of a story is based on the dynamic interactions of the different characters in it. Specially, it is on the main character that the storyline mainly revolves around and therefore, it has the capacity to direct readers' attentions. The main character of a tale is called protagonist and there may be more than one main character in a story. The things happen to the main character, the way these are being reacted and the results or effects they bring are essential..
Three parent individuals: advantages and disadvantages
Joana Murtinheira Faustino A controversial hereditary treatment was approved in Britain and now the first baby with three hereditary parents can be born in 2015. The procedure will allow that girls affected by devastating hereditary diseases to acquire healthy children. However this procedure will start the screen of DNA changes in humans - something that was long ago chose as unethical. Is this a real discovery treatment or crossing an unhealthy boundary? The procedure..
Why theres no universally accepted theory of accounting viewpoint essay
There are several reasons there is certainly nobody universally accepted theory of accounting. The reason why are of two types. The foremost is philosophical. The second is practical. This essay discusses each of these. It then provides instances from accounting theory. Philosophical reasons The declaration "There is absolutely no universally accepted accounting theory" is true by meaning. Scientific understanding of the word theory denies that any theory can be..
Essay on effective practice throughout the social rights system
Effective PracticeIn the Social justice system, there is a conglomerate of individuals which can be motivated to question injustices along with advocating against the biases that society affects on a various population. Subsequently, these Individuals showcase social rights and seek positive solutions for a chosen population. Additionally , social justice promotes advocacy and inhibits a education approach.Through a holistic perspective, the social employee collaborates..
Dissertation on supernatural forces in "macbeth"
The Play "Macbeth" by Shakespeare is shaped by unnatural forces by using the weird witches, the apparition with the ghost, and the floating dagger. These causes lead Macbeth to act in how he did and add puzzle to the play. The enjoy opens with all the three werewolves, and later upon Macbeth and Banquo face them. That they prophesized that Macbeth will be promoted to Thane of Cawdor, and then become Ruler of Scotland. In addition to that, Banquo was told that his sons will..
Dbq- gin act of 1751 essay
In mid-eighteenth century England, Parliament passed the Wacholderbranntwein Act of 1751, which usually restricted someone buy of gin through elevated retail certificate requirements and higher fees on this kind of liquor. This measure was enacted to lessen the consumption of spirits and the subsequent crime this engendered. Certainly, gin development increased practically 500% by 1701 to 1751.However , the general human population became engaged in a fierce debate..
Market centered solutions pertaining to global low income essays
Market-based solutions to resolving global lower income are influenced by the interrelated concepts of capitalism and neoliberalism. Such solutions are definitely the dominant talk in nearing global low income, being recommended by significant international celebrities including the Globe Bank as well as the International Financial Fund. In theory, market-based alternatives could potentially fix global low income through all their core purpose of boosting a State's..
English essay
The writer, Moniza Alvi, offers picked the ideal setting in the poem ‘An Unknown Girl' for the narrator to explore her feelings and thoughts about her Indian labor and birth culture- an Indian bazaar. Probably just like Moniza who may have dealt with understanding her Pakistaner birth tradition after getting raised in the united kingdom, the American indian narrator is growing up away from her birth lifestyle. Thrown in the midst of the Indian bazaar in which everything..
The harlem renaissance composition
Harlem RenaissanceThe Harlem Renaissance was a moments of racism, injustice, and importance. Somewhere between the 1920s and 1930s an African American movement occurred in Harlem, Nyc. The Harlem Renaissance optimistic the unique culture of African-Americans and redefined African-American manifestation. It was a result of Blacks migrating in the North, mostly Chicago, il and New york city. There were a large number of significant figures, both guy and female, that had..
An atm
A great ATMCREDIT stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. It is a top speed mode of transporting data from one point out another. With ATM, it is possible to transmit tone, data and video in small data packets over a single network. It can carry traffic in speeds up to 622 Mbps. Data is definitely transmitted in fixed length cells that gives it advantages over different methods of data transfer. ATM can be described as cell moving over network which takes data and fractures it in 48..
Composition on sexuality stereotypes of advertising and marketing campaigns
Plous and Neptune writes within their "Racial and gender biases in publication advertising" that advertisements have already been called ubiquitous, inescapable and one of the most important cultural factors affecting the current society. Also, they are known to be one of the great automobiles of social communication. While it is hard to determine the cumulative effects of the contact with the multitude of advertising, it is turned out through analysis on gender..
Nursing theory research: watson is caring unit essay
Nursing Theory Analysis: Watson's Caring UnitThe theory of human care or the Jean Watson's Nurturing Model, while the identity suggests, was a nursing theory that was developed by Dr . Jean Watson, a mentor of medical in the University of Colorado (Watson, T., 2014). It is quite apparent that Dr . Watson's education played out a significant and important part in the advancement her individual caring theory. Being knowledgeable both in Nursing and Psychology,..
Martin luther california king as a role model essays
Martin Luther King like a Role Version Everyone has someone who they look up to. It may be a hero or maybe a rolemodel. Martin Luther King serves as a role version for many AfricanAmericans as a result of his advantages and fight towards detrimental rights.California king became very popular and handled the lives of many. In respect toRobert A. Divine and other authors of America Past and Present, thearrest of Rosa Theme parks sparked a massive protest movement that seenthe emergence..
It was a typical day composition
It was a common day on a frosty January morning in 1805. Comfortable, white umbrella of snow-covered the peaceful city roads. The sun had not been up but, and the wild birds had not began singing all their cheery early morning songs. The Jones's household, or do i need to say the Jones' single area in a tenement, was tranquil. However , that could not last for very long, as it was a few: 15 in the morning, and each of our family's jobs started in six. I actually rolled over..
Subscribe to our updates
79 345 subscribers already with us

Related authors

Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm, in full Abu Muhammad ?Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa?id Ibn Hazm, (born November 7, 994, Cordoba, Caliphate..
Stephen King
Stephen King
Stephen King, in full Stephen Edwin King, (born September 21, 1947, Portland, Maine, U.S.), American..
Ruben Dario
Ruben Dario
Ruben Dario, pseudonym of Felix Ruben Garcia Sarmiento, (born January 18, 1867, Metapa, Nicaragua--died..
Mishima Yukio
Mishima Yukio
Mishima Yukio, pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake, (born January 14, 1925, Tokyo, Japan--died November..
Frank Sargeson
Frank Sargeson
Frank Sargeson, original name Norris Frank Davey, (born March 23, 1903, Hamilton, Waikato, New..
Tahar Ben Jelloun
Tahar Ben Jelloun
Tahar Ben Jelloun, (born December 1, 1944, Fes, Morocco), Moroccan-French novelist, poet, and..
Vladimir Mayakovsky
Vladimir Mayakovsky
Vladimir Mayakovsky, in full Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky, (born July 7 [July 19, New Style],..
Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens, in full Christopher Eric Hitchens, (born April 13, 1949, Portsmouth, England--died..
Aaron Bank
Aaron Bank
Aaron Bank, (born November 23, 1902, New York City, New York, U.S.--died April 1, 2004, Dana Point,..
Stephen Greenblatt
Stephen Greenblatt
Stephen Greenblatt, in full Stephen Jay Greenblatt, (born November 7, 1943, Boston, Massachusetts,..
Ishihara Shintaro
Ishihara Shintaro
Ishihara Shintaro, (born September 30, 1932, Kobe, Japan), Japanese writer and politician, who..
Michel Houellebecq
Michel Houellebecq
Michel Houellebecq, original name Michel Thomas, (born February 26, 1956 or 1958, Reunion, France),..
Heinrich von Kleist
Heinrich von Kleist
Heinrich von Kleist, in full Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist, (born October 18, 1777, Frankfurt..
Margaret Morse Nice
Margaret Morse Nice
Margaret Morse Nice, nee Margaret Morse, (born Dec. 6, 1883, Amherst, Mass., U.S.--died June 26,..
Ko Un
Ko Un
Ko Un, (born August 1, 1933, Kunsan, North Cholla province, Japanese-occupied Korea [now in South..
Janet Frame
Janet Frame
Janet Frame, in full Janet Paterson Frame Clutha, (born August 28, 1924, Dunedin, New Zealand--died..
St. John Chrysostom
St. John Chrysostom
St. John Chrysostom, (born 347 ce, Antioch, Syria--died September 14, 407, Comana, Helenopontus;..
Nanak
Nanak
Nanak, (born April 15, 1469, Rai Bhoi di Talvandi [now Nankana Sahib, Pakistan], near Lahore, India--died..
Mi Fu
Mi Fu
Mi Fu, Wade-Giles romanization Mi Fu, also called Yuanzhang, Haiyue shanren, or Xiangyang jushi,..
Yasmina Reza
Yasmina Reza
Yasmina Reza, (born May 1, 1959, Paris, France), French dramatist, novelist, director, and actress..