Leo XIII (March 02, 1810 - July 20, 1903)
Born: 2nd March, 1810
Died: 20th July, 1903
Nationality: pope
Region: Italy, Rome
Notable works: pope

Leo XIII Facts

Biography

Leo XIII, , original name Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci, (born March 2, 1810, Carpineto Romano, Papal States--died July 20, 1903, Rome), head of the Roman Catholic Church (1878-1903) who brought a new spirit to the papacy, manifested in more conciliatory positions toward civil governments, by care taken that the church not be opposed to scientific progress and by an awareness of the pastoral and social needs of the times.

Early career

Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci was the sixth child of a family of the lower nobility. After his early education in Viterbo and Rome, he completed his studies at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici (Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics) in Rome. In 1837 he was ordained a priest and entered the diplomatic service of the Papal States. His superiors immediately appreciated his qualities: flexibility and lucidity and great energy, despite his delicate health. Thus promotions came quickly; he was made delegate (the equivalent of provincial governor) of Benevento in 1838 and was transferred in 1841 to the more important delegation of Perugia. In January 1843 he was appointed nuncio (a papal legate of the highest rank, permanently attached to a civil government) to Brussels and shortly after was consecrated an archbishop.

Pecci's stay in Belgium, lasting only three years, was an important stage in the life of the future pope. He discovered how Catholics in a modern constitutional government could profit from the parliamentary system and from freedom of the press. But the Belgian nunciature halted the young prelate's career, which had begun so auspiciously. Pecci showed initiative and independence in several delicate situations, but he was severely criticized at the time, and King Leopold I, considering him less docile than his predecessor, soon demanded his recall.

He was then named, early in 1846, bishop of Perugia, a small diocese to which he was confined for 32 years, despite his having been made a cardinal in 1853. He suffered from this obscurity and made many attempts to win Rome's favour, but in vain: his harsh judgment of the opposition in the Papal States to the Roman Revolution of 1848 and his concern to avoid useless conflicts with the Italian authorities after the annexation of Umbria in 1860 made Rome suspect him--quite wrongly--of liberal sympathies and of tepidity with respect to temporal powers.

A weaker personality would undoubtedly have been dulled and embittered by this prolonged period of disfavour, but for Pecci these years of retreat were extremely fertile. He zealously applied himself to the systematic reorganization of his diocese and to the spiritual and intellectual improvement of his clergy. He also had available a great deal of leisure time in which to read and meditate. He occupied himself with the renewal of Christian philosophy and studied particularly the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas, the 13th-century Scholastic philosopher, to whom he had been introduced by his brother Giuseppe, a Jesuit seminary professor. He was also led to reconsider the problem of the relations between the church and modern society and became increasingly convinced of the mistake committed by ecclesiastical authorities in taking a fearful, negative attitude toward the aspirations of the times. The fruits of this silent maturation were revealed to his surprised contemporaries in his pastoral letters of 1877 and 1878, which attracted attention even beyond Italy's borders. He also received notice when, in 1877, he was named camerlengo, the office of chief administrator of the church in the event that the pope dies.

Pontificate

At the death of Pius IX in February 1878, Pecci's name was mentioned frequently among those of the principal papabili, those considered possible successors to the papacy. His candidacy was strongly supported by most of the non-Italian cardinals, who were impressed by the self-control and energy with which he acquitted his duties as camerlengo and who noted that one who had been away for so long from Rome would be less compromised by the decisions of the preceding pope. Cardinal Pecci was elected on Feb. 20, 1878, on the third ballot. He announced that he would take the name Leo in memory of Leo XII, whom he had always admired for his interest in education, for his conciliatory attitude toward temporal governments, and for his desire to create links with Christians who had separated from the Roman Catholic Church. The age of the new pope and his delicate health caused speculation that his pontificate would be brief. But, in fact, he directed the church for a quarter of a century.

The pontificate of Leo XIII's predecessor, Pius IX, had been long and controversial. From shortly after the beginning of his reign, Pius IX had been a strong, conservative authoritarian, both in his governing of the church and in his opposition to the new Italian government that annexed the Papal States. Although the pontificate of Leo XIII had a new spirit, the new pope was as intractable as his predecessor on the principle of the temporal sovereignty of the pope and continued to consider the traditional doctrine of the Christian state as an ideal. He reacted as strongly as had Pius IX against Freemasonry (a secret society that both popes viewed as opposed to Christianity) and secular liberalism. In church administration he continued to accentuate the centralization of authority in the papacy rather than in the national churches and reinforced the power of the nuncios. In addition, Leo XIII followed Pius IX in encouraging the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and to Mary. He renewed the condemnations of Rationalism--the theory that reason is the primary source of knowledge and of spiritual truth--and pursued with fresh vigour the reestablishment of the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas. In 1899 he condemned Americanism, the ill-defined movement to reconcile Catholicism and American culture.

In other respects, however, there is no doubt that Leo XIII's pontificate was characterized by a new spirit. In his relations with civil governments, Leo XIII showed his preference for diplomacy. He achieved many incontestable successes through diplomacy, although his ability in this area was definitely less than is customarily asserted. The true greatness of Leo XIII was precisely that, in spite of his taste for politics, he was not exclusively a political pope. He was also an intellectual sympathetic to scientific progress and to the need for the Roman Catholic Church to demonstrate itself open to such progress, and he always remained a pastor who was concerned for the church's internal life and for the spreading of its message throughout the world.

This concern toward renewing the dialogue between the church and the world was manifested especially in his many encyclical letters giving instructions to Catholics throughout the world. In 1893 the encyclical Providentissimus Deus ("The Most Provident God"), now outdated but originally a pioneering work, defined in fairly broad-minded manner the principles on which Catholics should interpret the Bible. In several instructions he recommended that church and state live together in peace within the framework of modern society. The encyclical Rerum Novarum ("Of New Things") in 1891, though rather cautious in its approach, showed that the papacy had taken cognizance of the problems of the working class. He attempted to support the organization of the Catholic laity and was concerned about renewed dialogue with non-Catholics, as is demonstrated in the interest he showed in the attempt to create a link between the Anglican Church and Rome and in his respect for the traditions of the Eastern churches.

During the last years of Leo XIII's pontificate, until his death in 1903, there was a hardening of church policy and a more reserved attitude toward Christian democracy. Nevertheless, Leo XIII succeeded in gaining great prestige for the papacy, as was shown by the increase in countries having diplomatic relations with the Vatican, even non-Christian countries. He was a man gifted with a superior intelligence, an energetic temperament, a keen awareness of his personal worth, and a discriminating sense for public relations. Although his pontificate did not bring about many immediate changes in the relationship of the Roman Catholic Church to society, it did initiate many new attitudes that began to mature in succeeding decades.

Leo XIII essays

Explore Related Essays
Basque nationalism is really a ongoing conflict record essay
When modern state governments began to form, political limitations and ethnolinguistic limitations mainly coincided in the areas along Europe's Atlantic coast. Liberal nationalism was most apt to emerge in expresses that already possessed a high degree of ethnic homogeneity. Long before the nineteenth century, countries such as Great britain, France, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden surfaced as nation-states in polities where ethnic divisions have been softened by a long..
Catcher in the rye essay topics
If you need to come up with catcher in the rye essay topics in order to write an interesting essay on J.D. Salinger’s novel, we advise you to use our service with a big database of authors who can help you with the writing assignments on various student subjects. There are a lot of interesting statements that can be used as essay topics for catcher in the rye. All of them can be incorporated with the themes found in the novel and are broad enough so it will be easy to support them..
Essay about writing
Writing any academic essay suggests shaping a coherent set of certain ideas into a solid argument. As essays are a linear form of writing, they offer just one idea at time. An academic essay is expected to present its ideas in the order, which makes most sense to its audience. A successfully structured essay, whether it’s a persuasive essay or essay writing about teachers has good chances to conquer readers’ hearts. The very focus of such a writing work predicts its structure..
Importance of job anchors
Edgar Schein, one of the founders in the field in modern organizational psychology, pointed out that, every one of us has a particular orientation towards work. As a result of which, most of us approach our work with a set of concern and certain worth. This concept is recognized as 'Profession Anchors'. It symbolizes one's combination of perceived career competence and includes skills, motives, principles and attitudes that give stability and way to a person's career. It really..
Importance of political theory
POLITICAL THEORY Political Theory is making an endless question about its comprehensive definition; there are several views by theorists in understanding the nature of the discipline. You can find need to clarify this is of key political ideas such as freedom, equality, justice etc. in a systematic manner. There exists need to examine the arguments put forward by various political think-tanks in the justification of the concepts. In analyzing arguments, addititionally..
Market plan for fmcg company
I have just been appointed to manage an fast moving consumer goods brand for a big organization. Now I am going to do a record about Dove this brand of fast moving consumer goods. I will record Dove's basic information, the sole of brand, marketing mix, and the way the marketing would change because of this brand above the stages of the product life cycle. Let me report these plainly right now. 2. Introduction Dove is engaged in the manufacture and sales of products related to human..
The key socialization phase sociable policy essay
Primary socialization could be more important than secondary socialization as the principal socialization stage is the essential step an individual will take to enter into modern culture. Socialization has been referred to as to render public or make someone able to live in culture and learn the communal norms and traditions. Socialization is central to the functioning of any society which is also central to the emergence of modernity. Socialization tends to serve two..
The purpose of punishment in the justice system criminology essay
Case Research 2: The goal of Abuse within the legal justice system. What role will punishment serve within the legal justice system? Consider the part enjoyed by reductivism, incapacitation, retribution, deterrence and treatment as by-products of the perceived need for the legal justice system to punish offenders. How have political regulations and other ideologies damaged the state emphasis on the necessity to punish offenders? In the following paragraphs it is going..
Winter dreams, f. scott fitzgerald - analysis
Keywords: winter dreams analysis, f scott fitzgerald winter dreams, winter dreams american dream F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Winter Dreams" documents the life span of Dexter Green, "a young man from a moderate background who aims to be always a area of the exclusive world inhabitated by the women he adores" (Perkins 1). The task regards a period in Dexter Greens life, from the age of fourteen to thirty two. Fitzgerald divides the storyline into six episodes through those eighteen..
The situation of labor demand disadvantages essay
Individuals have recently been in a position to obtain new technology, acknowledge new ideas and experience fresh social criteria, but what most haven't been able to find lately are jobs. Labor demands are continuous to decrease and presents a large problem to Americans. Fewer people are switching their jobs in fear of the unknown. Printed on This summer 21, 2016, Anna Louie Sussman, examines earnings data which backlinks declining task mobility to lessen overall demand..
Howard gardner is actually theory of multiple intellect essay cases
Multiple IntelligenceToni Ann IrvineColumbia University Multiple intelligenceHoward Gardner's theory contains ten main multiple intelligence. Since the years have got progressed presently there have taken one particular out which is left with the main seven. These kinds of seven are: Linguistic, Mathematical, Spatial, bodily, Musical, Social, and Intrapersonal. These are present in everyone; nevertheless , each person will excel in a single or two. Once teachers..
Dont give full attention to camps dissertation
Don't Concentrate on CampsA concentration camp can be defined as a camp were particular people are confined or perhaps detained for the period of time, though ironically the definition of death camp is commonly applied as a suggestions. Between the many years of 1942 and 1945 the German Fascista Party initiated concentration camps for all Jews and other people that were deemed by Adolf Hitler to be inferior. This is a generally known fact, although extensive knowledge..
Composition on making decisions could affect our future
Making decisions is one of the most difficult things is obviously that we come across daily: the decision whether to be or get, say "yes or no". In the end, we all have to experience the end result of your choice. Having to decide to play it safe or to select a risk is a hard decision, one which I experienced this past year. These kinds of decisions happen to be hard to generate because they will affect our future and possibly someone else's future. The choice we help to..
The power of the night in macbeth dissertation
The world renowned masterpiece, Macbeth, can be described as tragedy which has lasted over the centuries and has had an important impact on British literature. The play takes place in violent times, by which betrayal, falsehood, and concealment lead to misery. To thoroughly encompass the suffering and wickedness that take place through the tragedy, Shakespeare uses dark imagery which usually evokes a feeling of foreboding and imminent wicked. A. C. Bradley describes Shakespeare's..
Essay about financial analysis from the coffee bean industry
In this essay, I will perform an economic research of the beans market to clarify how the short and long haul affects cost fluctuations, and whether or not authorities intervention ought to be used to secure prices to benefit the growers. The assumption of demand and supply is that while demand is definitely increased, supply will need to boost to maintain industry equilibrium. Perhaps the consumer has very little impact on the amounts at which demand and supply run at, even though..
Does herodotus believe in cultural relativism essay
For its some place, The Histories of Herodotus is actually a work of remarkably expansive scope. To set the level for the wars between Greece and Persia ( 490-479 N. C. ), Herodotus details the geographical and social background and testimonials the politics history of Lydia, Media, Babylon, Egypt, Persia, Scythia, Libya, Ionia, and various Greek city-states in Asia Minimal, on the Aegean islands, and on the European mainland. To record the results of his "research"..
In times of war one of the casualties is truth essay
The term war to numerous people conjures up images of death and destruction which is displayed in the two poems, ‘Dulce et decorum est' and ‘Disabled'. Wilfred Owen, who had been a solider and skilled war quality, wrote both of the poems, he do this from general observations. In Both equally poems an adverse view is portrayed, by simply describing the pain, struggling and the basic consequences of war. The message he can trying to place across by simply writing these..
Spillover associated with domestic conveying and foreign owned businesses on the time local firms
This section analyzes spillover effects via domestic exporting and foreign-owned firms on the time local firms decide on start transferring and how lengthy they last exporting when started. To meet this aim, we estimation export entry and exit using discrete-time proportional hazards model. Admittance is patterned by taking household non-exporting organizations to examine the duration until they begin exporting. In the same way, an foreign trade exit can be modeled by..
Self-reliance by ralph emerson
Self-Reliance simply by Ralph EmersonDear EditorI have lately read Self-sufficiency by Rob Waldo Emerson, and with ample time to analyze the passages I have come towards the conclusion that even though it was written prior to our technology it nonetheless applies to this fully. World today provides set the laws intended for both moral behavior, and social habit. The current generation, just like everyone before this, has implemented these laws and regulations of society..
Euripides ' medea and oscar wilde is salome article
Euripides' Medea and Oscar Wilde's Salome are two plays that clarify the discord between women and men, and the like under the patriarchal society. The characters Medea and Salome have many different in payback but both have tragic love in patriarchal society. Simply by comparing these two plays, it can shows how character's tragic love in Medea and Salome fault patriarchal world.Medea and Salome have a tragic love unsociable ways which may cause them to commence..
Subscribe to our updates
79 345 subscribers already with us

Related authors

Sir Richard Steele
Sir Richard Steele
Sir Richard Steele, pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff, (born 1672, Dublin, Ire.--died Sept. 1, 1729,..
Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov, in full Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov, (born November 19 [November 8, Old Style],..
Isaac ben Solomon Luria
Isaac ben Solomon Luria
Isaac ben Solomon Luria, byname Ha-ari (Hebrew: The Lion), (born 1534, Jerusalem, Palestine, Ottoman..
Rumi
Rumi
Rumi, in full Jalal al-Din Rumi, also called by the honorific Mawlana, (born c. September 30, 1207,..
Tobias Smollett
Tobias Smollett
Tobias Smollett, in full Tobias George Smollett, (baptized March 19, 1721, Cardross, Dumbartonshire,..
Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington, byname of Edward Kennedy Ellington, (born April 29, 1899, Washington, D.C., U.S.--died..
Anna Akhmatova
Anna Akhmatova
Anna Akhmatova, pseudonym of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko, (born June 11 [June 23, New Style], 1889,..
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau
Jean-Philippe Rameau, (baptized September 25, 1683, Dijon, France--died September 12, 1764,..
Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso, (born March 11, 1544, Sorrento, Kingdom of Naples [Italy]--died April 25, 1595,..
Francois Hollande
Francois Hollande
Francois Hollande, in full Francois Gerard Georges Hollande, (born August 12, 1954, Rouen, France),..
Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell, in full Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell Marsh, (born November 8, 1900, Atlanta,..
Lucian
Lucian
Lucian, Greek Lucianos, Latin Lucianus, (born ad 120, Samosata, Commagene, Syria [now Samsat,..
Martial
Martial
Martial, Latin in full Marcus Valerius Martialis, (born Mar. 1, ad 38-41, Bilbilis, Hispania [Spain]--died..
Cornelius Otto Jansen
Cornelius Otto Jansen
Cornelius Otto Jansen, (born October 28, 1585, Acquoi, near Leerdam, Holland--died May 6, 1638,..
Ibn Gabirol
Ibn Gabirol
Ibn Gabirol, in full Solomon ben Yehuda Ibn Gabirol, Arabic Abu Ayyub Sulayman ibn Yahya ibn Gabirut,..
Juvenal
Juvenal
Juvenal, Latin in full Decimus Junius Juvenalis, (born 55-60? ce, Aquinum, Italy--died probably..
Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley
Edmond Halley, Edmond also spelled Edmund, (born Nov. 8, 1656, Haggerston, Shoreditch, near London--died..
Gaius Petronius Arbiter
Gaius Petronius Arbiter
Gaius Petronius Arbiter, original name Titus Petronius Niger, (died ad 66), reputed author of the..
Michael Harrington
Michael Harrington
Michael Harrington, (born February 24, 1928, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.--died July 31, 1989, Larchmont,..
Terence
Terence
Terence, Latin in full Publius Terentius Afer, (born c. 195 bc, Carthage, North Africa [now in Tunisia]--died..