Judah ben Samuel
Region: Germany
Notable works: "Sefer Hasidim"

Judah ben Samuel Facts

Biography

Judah ben Samuel, also called Judah The Hasid Of Regensburg, or Yehuda The Hasid, (died 1217), Jewish mystic and semilegendary pietist, a founder of the fervent, ultrapious movement of German Hasidism. He was also the principal author of the ethical treatise Sefer Hasidim (published in Bologna, 1538; "Book of the Pious"), possibly the most important extant document of medieval Judaism and a major work of Jewish literature. Judah is not to be confused with the commentator Judah Sir Leon of Paris (1166-1224), also called ha-Hasid, or the 17th-century messianic enthusiast Judah Hasid ha-Levi, nor is the Hasidic movement of his time directly related to the 18th-century Hasidic movement founded by the Ba?al Shem Tov.

The facts of Judah's life, like those of other major Jewish mystics, are obscure. He was the son of Samuel the Hasid, also a mystic, and belonged to the eminent Kalonymos family, which provided medieval Germany with many of her mystics and spiritual leaders. It is known that in about 1195, possibly because of German persecution, he left Speyer for Regensburg, where he founded a yeshiva (academy) and gathered such disciples as the mystic Eleazar of Worms (also a member of the Kalonymos family) and the codifiers Isaac ben Moses of Vienna and Baruch ben Samuel of Mainz. Most of Judah's life, however, is clothed in legend; e.g., it is stated that he was ignorant of Jewish law until, at 18, sudden enlightenment enabled him to work such miracles as reviving the dead and visiting the prophet Elijah.

The Sefer Hasidim is a compilation of the writings of Judah, of his father Samuel, and of Judah's disciple Eleazar of Worms. Judah's teachings, however, appear to give a distinctive stamp to the entire work. The treatise, although disorganized and poorly written, is invaluable for giving a realistic picture of the concerns and problems of a medieval Jewish community; religion is revealed in its practical workings, rather than as disembodied theories. Dealing with man's relations with God and his fellowman, his business practices, the sabbath, social intercourse with Gentiles, penitence, and a host of other subjects, the book is a detailed manual of conduct.

Judah also wrote a mystic work surviving only in citations dealing with the kavod ("divine glory"), the aspect of God that man can experience, as distinguished from the ultimate reality of God, which is beyond man's experience or comprehension. Judah was also the author of liturgies and responsa (authoritative answers, or responses, to questions of Jewish law).

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