Jose Carlos Mariategui (June 14, 1894 - April 16, 1930)
Born: 14th June, 1894
Died: 16th April, 1930
Region: Lima, Peru
Notable works: "Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality", "La escena contemporanea"

Jose Carlos Mariategui Facts

Biography

Jose Carlos Mariategui, (born June 14, 1894, Moquegua, Peru--died April 16, 1930, Lima), political leader and essayist who was the first Peruvian intellectual to apply the Marxist model of historical materialism to Peruvian problems.

The Leguia dictatorship in Peru (1919-30) sought to rid itself of one of its most ardent critics by sending the hitherto self-educated Mariategui to study in Italy in 1919. While there, he established strong ideological ties with some of the leading Socialist thinkers of the time, among them Henri Barbusse, Antonio Gramsci, and Maxim Gorky. He returned to Lima in 1923 and became a strong supporter of Victor Raul Haya de la Torres' Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA). After a dispute with Luis Alberto Sanchez, a leading Aprista, he left the Alliance to establish the Peruvian Socialist Party in 1928; its name was changed to the Peruvian Communist Party in 1930. Though paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair, Mariategui also founded Amauta (1926-30), a Marxist cultural and literary journal that published avant-garde writing. In essays in La escena contemporanea (1925; "The Contemporary Scene"), Mariategui attacked Fascism and defined the responsibilities of the intellectual in countries where social oppression reigns. Cesar Vallejo, Peru's greatest poet, was deeply influenced by him.

Mariategui's masterpiece is the collection of essays Siete ensayos de interpretacion de la realidad peruana (1928; Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality). While emphasizing the economic aspects of Marxism, Mariategui nonetheless does not repudiate the value of religion and myth in his treatment of the Indians. His views on literature, signaling the importance of indigenous themes and language while adhering to avant-garde artistic tendencies, provided the means to reevaluate Peruvian culture. His Obras completas ("Complete Works") were published in 1959.

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