Janos Arany (March 02, 1817 - October 22, 1882)
Born: 2nd March, 1817
Died: 22nd October, 1882
Nationality: Hungarian poet
Region: Hungary, Budapest
Notable works: "Toldi esteje", "Szepirodalmi Figyelo", "Toldi", "Oszikek", "Toldi szerelme"

Janos Arany Facts

Biography

Janos Arany, (born March 2, 1817, Nagyszalonta, Hung.--died Oct. 22, 1882, Budapest), the greatest Hungarian epic poet.

Born of an impecunious farming family, he went to school in Debrecen but abandoned his studies to join for a short time a group of strolling players. Arany made his real advent on the literary scene in 1847 with his popular epic Toldi, which was received with enthusiasm by a public craving for a national literature of quality in a language all could grasp. Sandor Petofi wrote a poem in its praise, and this was the beginning of a lifelong friendship.

In 1848 Arany took part in the Hungarian revolution and for a short period edited a government newspaper for peasants. With the crushing of the revolution he took up teaching. In 1858 he was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy. He moved then from Nagykoros to Pest, where he edited a literary periodical, the Szepirodalmi Figyelo (later the Koszoru), and was elected first secretary and in 1870 secretary-general of the academy.

Arany's main epic work is the trilogy Toldi (1847), Toldi szerelme (1848-79; "Toldi's Love"), and Toldi esteje (1854; "Toldi's Evening"). Its hero, a youth of great physical strength, is taken from a verse chronicle written by Peter Ilosvai Selymes in the 16th century. Set in the 14th century, the first part of the trilogy relates the adventures of Toldi in reaching the royal court; the second part tells of his tragic love; and the third, of his conflicts with the king and his death. Though only a fragment, another epic poem, Bolond Istok (1850; "Stephen the Fool"), a strange mixture of humour and bitterness, is valuable for Arany's rare moments of self-revelation. Arany started work on a Hun trilogy, connected with Hungarian prehistory, but finished only the first part of it, Buda halala (1864; The Death of King Buda).

The poems of his two great lyrical periods are fraught with melancholy. The earlier poems, written in the 1850s, are overshadowed by the loss of Petofi and by Arany's despair for the Hungarian nation and for himself. The Oszikek, his beautiful swan songs, written just before his death, poignantly reflect Arany's sense of unfulfillment and solitude.

The best edition of Arany's collected works is by Geza Voinovich, 6 vol. (1951-52).

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