Subramania Bharati, also called C. Subramania Bharati, in full Chinnaswami Subramania Bharati, Subramania also spelled Subrahmanya, (born December 11, 1882, Ettaiyapuram, Madras Presidency, India--died September 12, 1921, Madras (now Chennai)), outstanding Indian writer of the nationalist period who is regarded as the father of the modern Tamil style.The son of a learned Brahman, Bharati became a Tamil scholar at an early age. He received little formal education, however, and in 1904 he moved to Madras (now Chennai). There he translated English into Tamil for several magazines and..
Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, Indian writer whose works of over half a century--numbering some 40 novels and more than 600 short stories written in the Malayalam language--portrayed the impact of events on society in his home state of Kerala, reflecting his concern for its poor, lower-caste members and for the downtrodden in society at large (b. April 17, 1912, Thakazhi, India--d. April 10/11, 1999, Kuttanad, Alappuzha, India).
Qurratulain Hyder, Hyder also spelled Hayder or Haider, (born January 20, 1927, Aligarh, British India [now in Uttar Pradesh state, India]--died August 21, 2007, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India), Indian writer, editor, scholar, and translator who helped the novel become a serious genre of hitherto poetry-oriented Urdu literature. Her masterwork, Aag ka darya (1959; River of Fire), has been compared to those of Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Czech novelist Milan Kundera.Both of Hyder's parents were writers. She attended Isabella Thoburn College and graduated from the University..
Dom Moraes, in full Dominic Francis Moraes, (born July 19, 1938, Bombay, British India [now Mumbai, Maharashtra, India]--died June 2, 2004, Mumbai), editor, essayist, biographer, and inveterate traveler who was one of the best-known English-language poets of India. His first book of poetry, A Beginning (1957), was published when he was only 19 years old. He produced nearly 30 books in his lifetime.Moraes's father was noted Goan journalist and writer Frank Moraes, who became the first Indian editor of The Times of India after independence. Moraes grew up in a minority Christian culture. In..
Harishchandra, also called Bhartendu, (born Sept. 9, 1850, Varanasi, India--died Jan. 6, 1885, Varanasi), Indian poet, dramatist, critic, and journalist, commonly referred to as the "father of modern Hindi." His great contributions in founding a new tradition of Hindi prose were recognized even in his short lifetime, and he was admiringly called Bhartendu ("Moon of India"), an honorific that has taken precedence over his own name.Harishchandra was born into a distinguished family that traced its descent from Aminchand, the prosperous banker whose intrigues against his master, the Nawab..
Raja Rao, (born November 8, 1908, Hassan, Mysore [now Karnataka], India--died July 8, 2006, Austin, Texas, U.S.), author who was among the most-significant Indian novelists writing in English during the middle decades of the 20th century.Descended from a distinguished Brahman family in southern India, Rao studied English at Nizam College, Hyderabad, and then at the University of Madras, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1929. He left India for France to study literature and history at the University of Montpellier and the Sorbonne. Also while in France he married Camille Mouly, in..