Zsigmond Moricz, (born June 29, 1879, Csecse, Hung., Austria-Hungary--died Sept. 4, 1942, Budapest), Hungarian realist novelist who wrote of villages and country towns.While working as a journalist, Moricz published his first story (1908) in the review Nyugat ("The West"), which he later edited. In his many novels and short stories, finely characterized men and women of various social classes come into collision, and their fierce energies collapse or degenerate into a murderous passion. Some of his works centre obsessively on the morbid and doomed elements of society.Moricz's greatest..
Mihaly Vorosmarty, (born Dec. 1, 1800, Nyek, Hung.--died Nov. 19, 1855, Pest), poet and dramatist who helped make the literature of Hungary truly Hungarian during the era (1825-49) of social reforms. By ridding Hungarian literature of overwhelming classical and German influence, he made it national not only in language but in spirit.Born into an impoverished noble family, Vorosmarty soon had to provide for himself. From the age of 15 as a schoolboy, and later while studying law, he supported himself by private tutoring. In 1825 he published an epic poem, Zalan futasa ("The Flight of Zalan"),..
Lajos Kassak, (born March 21, 1887, Ersekujvar, Hungary, Austria-Hungary [now Nove Zamky, Slovakia]--died July 22, 1967, Budapest, Hungary), poet and novelist, the first important Hungarian working-class writer.At the age of 20 Kassak began traveling on foot throughout Europe and so gained a cosmopolitan outlook. A pacifist during World War I, he founded the journal Tett ("Action") in 1915 to express his views. He was also a socialist, and he welcomed the short-lived communist regime of Bela Kun in Hungary in 1919. After its collapse, Kassak emigrated to Vienna, where he edited a journal..
Ferenc Herczeg, (born Sept. 22, 1863, Versecz, Hung.--died Feb. 24, 1954, Budapest), novelist and playwright, the leading literary exponent of conservative-nationalist opinion in early 20th-century Hungary.Herczeg was born into a well-to-do family of German origin. Although he studied law, he chose a literary career, which was successful from the publication of his first novel in 1890. In 1895 he founded Uj Idok ("New Times"), which remained for half a century the literary magazine of the conservative upper and middle classes of Hungary. His light novels of manners contained just enough..
Gyula Illyes, (born Nov. 2, 1902, Racegres, Austria-Hungary [now in Hungary]--died April 14, 1983, Budapest), Hungarian poet, novelist, dramatist, and dissident, a leading literary figure in Hungary during the 20th century.Illyes supported the short-lived soviet republic led by Bela Kun (1919). Sought by the police, Illyes went to Vienna, then to Berlin and to Paris, where he completed his education at the Sorbonne.He returned to Hungary in 1926 and soon became a contributor to the literary review Nyugat ("The West"), which was edited from 1929 by his friend and mentor Mihaly Babits. Eventually..
Odon Edmund Josef von Horvath, (born December 9, 1901, Fiume, Hungary [now Rijeka, Croatia]--died June 1, 1938, Paris, France), Hungarian novelist and playwright who was one of the most promising German-language dramatists of the 1930s and one of the earliest antifascist writers in Germany.Horvath, the son of a Hungarian career diplomat, attended schools in Budapest, Vienna, and Munich before settling in Germany. His early plays, such as Revolte auf Cote 3018 (produced 1927; "Revolt on Hill 3018"; rewritten as Die Bergbahn, produced 1929, "The Mountain Railway"), show a fascination with..
Bela Balazs, original name Herbert Bauer, (born August 4, 1884, Szeged, Hungary--died May 7, 1949, Budapest), Hungarian writer, Symbolist poet, and influential film theoretician.Balazs's theoretical work Halalesztetika ("The Aesthetics of Death") was published in 1906; his first drama, Doktor Szelpal Margit, was performed by the Hungarian National Theatre in 1909. His poems in the anthology Holnap ("Tomorrow") reflect the influence of the folk songs he had collected with the Hungarian composer Zoltan Kodaly. His poetic plays The Wooden Prince and Duke Bluebeard's Castle were set..
Tibor Dery, Hungarian form Dery Tibor, (born Oct. 18, 1894, Budapest, Hung.--died Aug. 18, 1978, Budapest), Hungarian novelist, short-story writer, poet, and playwright, one of the most respected and controversial figures in 20th-century Hungarian literature. He was imprisoned for his role in the 1956 revolution.Born to an upper-middle-class Jewish family, Dery graduated from the Academy of Commerce in Budapest. From 1913 to 1918 he worked as a factory clerk and wrote many poems and essays. His novel Lia (1917) led to a charge of indecency. Between 1917 and 1919 many of his poems and short..