Rudolf Baumbach, (born September 28, 1840, Kranichfeld, Thuringia [Germany]--died September 21, 1905, Meiningen, Thuringia, Germany), German writer of popular student drinking songs and of narrative verse.A librarian in Meiningen, Baumbach was a poet of the vagabond school and wrote, in imitation of Viktor von Scheffel, many drinking songs, such as "Die Lindenwirtin" ("The Linden Hostess"), which endeared him to the German student world. His real strength, however, lay in narrative verse, especially concerning the scenery and life of his native Thuringia. Among his best-known works..
Otto Erich Hartleben, (born June 3, 1864, Clausthal, Hanover--died Feb. 11, 1905, Salo, Italy), German poet, dramatist, and short-story writer known for his Naturalistic dramas that portray with ironic wit the weaknesses of middle-class society.Hartleben studied law and held minor judicial appointments and then, from 1890, lived a bohemian life as a free-lance writer. The most popular of his dramas was the tragedy Rosenmontag (1900; Love's Carnival, 1904), which portrays the tragedy of a Prussian officer in love with a working class girl. Social criticism in his works gave way to humorous..
Achim von Arnim, byname of Karl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim, (born Jan. 26, 1781, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]--died Jan. 21, 1831, Wiepersdorf, Brandenburg), folklorist, dramatist, poet, and story writer whose collection of folk poetry was a major contribution to German Romanticism.While a student at the University of Heidelberg, Arnim published jointly with Clemens Brentano a remarkable collection of folk poetry, Des Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Boy's Magic Horn"; the title derives from the opening poem, which tells of a youth who brings the empress a magic horn). The first volume (published..
Hermann Kurz, (born Nov. 30, 1813, Reutlingen, kingdom of Wurttemberg [Germany]--died Oct. 10, 1873, Tubingen, Ger.), German writer chiefly known for two powerful historical novels, Schillers Heimatjahre (1843; "Schiller's Homeland Years") and Der Sonnenwirt (1855; "The Proprietor of the Sun Inn"), both critical of the existing social order, and for his satirically humorous tales of Swabian life in Erzahlungen (1858-63; "Tales").Although Kurz studied at the theological seminary in Tubingen (1831-35), he gave up his position as a minister to earn his living as a writer. Failing at that,..
Kurt Tucholsky, pseudonyms Theobald Tiger, Peter Panter, Ignaz Wrobel, and Kaspar Hauser, (born Jan. 9, 1890, Berlin, Ger.--died Dec. 21, 1935, Hindas, near Gothenburg, Swed.), German satirical essayist, poet, and critic, best-known for his cabaret songs.After studying law and serving in World War I, Tucholsky left Germany in 1924 and lived first in Paris and after 1929 in Sweden. He contributed to Rote Signale (1931; "Red Signals"), a collection of communist poetry, and to Schaubuhne, later Die Weltbuhne, a journal published by the pacifist Carl von Ossietzky. In 1933 Tucholsky's works..
Arnold Zweig, (born November 10, 1887, Glogau, Silesia, Germany [now Glogow, Poland]--died November 26, 1968, East Berlin, East Germany), German writer best known for his novel Der Streit um den Sergeanten Grischa (1927; The Case of Sergeant Grischa).In 1933 Zweig left Germany for Czechoslovakia. He later lived as an emigre in Palestine until 1948, when he moved to East Germany. He served as president of the East German Academy of Arts from 1950 to 1953.The Case of Sergeant Grischa depicts the social workings of the German army during World War I through the story of the Russian prisoner Grischa's..
Bernhard Kellermann, (born March 4, 1879, Furth, Germany--died October 17, 1951, Potsdam, East Germany), German journalist and writer best known for his novel Der Tunnel (1913; The Tunnel, 1915), a sensational technical-utopian work about the construction of a tunnel between Europe and North America.Kellermann was a painter before he turned to writing. His early novels, Yester und Li (1904), Ingeborg (1906), and Der Tor (1909; The Fool), were written in the Neo-Romantic Impressionist manner. The renowned Tunnel was followed by Der 9. November (1921; The Ninth of November), inspired by..
Wilhelm Hauff, (born Nov. 29, 1802, Stuttgart, Wurttemberg [Germany]--died Nov. 18, 1827, Stuttgart), German poet and novelist best known for his fairy tales.Educated at the University of Tubingen, Hauff worked as a tutor and in 1827 became editor of J.F. Cotta's newspaper Morgenblatt. Hauff had a narrative and inventive gift and sense of form; he wrote with ease, combining narrative themes of others with his own. His work shows a pleasant, often spirited, wit. There is a strong influence of E.T.A. Hoffmann in his fantasy Mitteilungen aus den Memoiren des Satans (1826-27; "Pronouncements..
Johann Heinrich Merck, (born April 11, 1741, Darmstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt [Germany]--died June 27, 1791, Darmstadt), German writer and critic who provided valuable guidance to the young writers of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") movement of the late 18th century.After studying law at Giessen, Merck was appointed first a paymaster at Darmstadt and later an official in the war department for the court of Hesse-Darmstadt. For several years he was influential in German literary circles and sympathetic with the poetic aims of such leading writers as Christoph Friedrich Nicolai, Christoph..
Hans Grimm, in full Hans Emil Wilhelm Grimm, (born March 22, 1875, Wiesbaden, Ger.--died Sept. 27, 1959, Lippoldsberg), German writer whose works were popular expressions of Pan-Germanism and helped to prepare the climate of opinion in Germany that embraced the nationalist and expansionist policies of Adolf Hitler.Educated in Munich and Lausanne, he received commercial training in England and in 1897 went to South Africa, where from 1901 to 1910 he was a merchant in Cape Colony. He returned to Germany and from 1911 to 1915 studied political science in Munich and at the Colonial Institute in..
Klabund, pseudonym of Alfred Henschke, (born November 4, 1890, Crossen, Germany [now Krosno Odrzanskie, Poland]--died August 14, 1928, Davos, Switzerland), Expressionist poet, playwright, and novelist who adapted and translated works from Chinese, Japanese, Persian, and other non-Western literatures into German. His free, imaginative renderings include Der Kreidekreis (1924; The Circle of Chalk), a drama that inspired the German playwright Bertolt Brecht to write his play Der kaukasische Kreidekreis (The Caucasian Chalk Circle).A consumptive who spent many years in sanatoriums,..
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, (born March 15, 1830, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]--died April 2, 1914, Munich, Ger.), German writer and prominent member of the traditionalist Munich school who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910.Heyse studied classical and Romance languages and traveled for a year in Italy, supported by a research grant. After completing his studies he became an independent scholar and was called to Munich by Maximilian II of Bavaria. There, with the poet Emanuel Geibel, he became the head of the Munich circle of writers, who sought to preserve traditional artistic..
Friedrich von Spielhagen, (born February 24, 1829, Magdeburg, Prussian Saxony [Germany]--died February 25, 1911, Berlin, Germany), popular writer whose works are considered representative of the social novel in Germany.After studying at the Universities of Berlin, Bonn, and Greifswald, Spielhagen was a teacher in a Gymnasium (high school) at Leipzig, but after 1854 he became entirely involved with literature. From 1878 to 1884 he was editor of Westermanns Monatshefte; he was also an active partisan in democratic movements. After two earlier novels, he achieved wide success with Problematische..
Charlotte von Stein, original name Charlotte von Schardt, (born Dec. 25, 1742, Eisenach, Saxe-Weimar--died Jan. 6, 1827, Weimar), German writer and an intimate friend of and important influence on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; she was the inspiration for the female figures Iphigenie in his Iphigenie auf Tauris and Natalie in Wilhelm Meister. She remained for Goethe an unattainable feminine ideal and should not be confused with the warm and simple Lotte, heroine of The Sorrows of Young Werther, who was inspired by Goethe's earlier attachment to Charlotte Buff.The eldest daughter of the Weimar..
Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger, (born February 17, 1752, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]--died March 9, 1831, Dorpat, Estonia), dramatist and novelist, a representative of the German literary revolt against rationalism in favour of emotionalism known as the Sturm und Drang movement. Indeed, it took its name from his play Der Wirrwarr, oder Sturm und Drang (1776; "Confusion, or Storm and Stress").The reckless, rebellious style of Klinger's early life seems the very embodiment of Sturm und Drang in its simpler interpretation. His numerous plays, written at top speed and in the fury of inspiration,..
Paul Ernst, in full Paul Karl Friedrich Ernst, (born March 7, 1866, Elbingerode, Saxony [Germany]--died May 13, 1933, Sankt Georgen, Austria), German writer known particularly for his short stories and for essays on philosophical, economic, and literary problems.Ernst studied for the ministry but quickly became disillusioned with theology. He became a militant Marxist and the editor of the Berliner Volkstribune. He severed his Marxist connections at the turn of the century, however, and repudiated the doctrine in Der Zusammenbruch des Marxismus (1919; "The Collapse of Marxism"). He..
Sophie von La Roche, nee Sophie Gutermann, (born Dec. 6, 1731, Kaufbeuern, Bavaria [Germany]--died Feb. 18, 1807, Offenbach, Hesse), German writer whose first and most important work, Geschichte des Frauleins von Sternheim (1771; History of Lady Sophia Sternheim), was the first German novel written by a woman and is considered to be among the best works from the period in which English novels, particularly those of Samuel Richardson, had great influence on many German writers.She was engaged to her close friend and cousin, the well-known writer Christoph Martin Wieland, but the betrothal..
Wilhelm Heinse, in full Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse, (born Feb. 16, 1746, Langewiesen, near Weimar, Thuringia [Germany]--died June 22, 1803, Aschaffenburg, near Frankfurt am Main [Germany]), German novelist and art critic whose work combined grace with the stormy fervour that is characteristic of literature of the Sturm und Drang period and exerted a strong influence on the Romanticists.A law student at Erfurt, Heinse met the writer Christoph Martin Wieland and through him Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, who was known for his patronage of young poets and who in 1772 procured Heinse a post as..
Oskar Maria Graf, (born July 22, 1894, Berg am Starnberger See, Ger.--died June 28, 1967, New York, N.Y., U.S.), German regional novelist and poet known for novels and sketches of Bavarian peasant life, such as Kalender-Geschichten, 2 vol. (1929, rev. 1957; "Calendar Stories"). Graf's writing is marked by frank realism and by his own socialist and pacifist beliefs, but these are tempered by humorous affection for his subjects.An apprentice baker, Graf went to Munich in 1911, where he supported himself with a variety of menial jobs. Drafted into military service, he was a soldier at the Russian..
Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel, (born Jan. 31, 1741, Gerdauen, Prussia [now Zheleznodorozhny, Russia]--died April 23, 1796, Konigsberg [now Kaliningrad, Russia]), German writer of the late Enlightenment and a disciple of the philosopher Immanuel Kant. Although he was a minor writer of his time, his works enjoyed an unusually long-lasting popularity and can now be seen to have foreshadowed the novels of Jean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter).Hippel studied theology at the University of Konigsberg in the 1750s and became a tutor. He later reentered the university and studied law; he went..
Christian Furchtegott Gellert, (born July 4, 1715, Hainichen, Saxony [now in Germany]--died Dec. 13, 1769, Leipzig), poet and novelist, a prominent representative of the German Enlightenment whose works were, for a time, second in popularity only to the Bible.The son of a pastor, Gellert was reared in a poor and extremely pious family. After working as a tutor, he studied at the University of Leipzig, where he became a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) in 1745 and a professor in 1751. Popular both for his work and for his personality, his lectures on poetry, rhetoric, and ethics were exceptionally..
Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg, (born Jan. 3, 1737, Tondern, Schleswig [now Tonder, Den.]--died Nov. 1, 1823, Altona, near Hamburg [Germany]), German poet, critic, and theorist of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") literary movement, whose Briefe uber die Merkwurdigkeiten der Literatur (1766-67; "Letters About the Peculiarities of Literature") contained the first definite formulation of the critical principles of this movement: its enthusiasm for Shakespeare, its preoccupation with youthful genius, and its emphasis on the importance of unbridled emotion.After studying..
Joseph Victor von Scheffel, (born February 16, 1826, Karlsruhe, Baden [Germany]--died April 9, 1886, Karlsruhe, Germany), poet and novelist whose immensely popular humorous epic poem Der Trompeter von Sackingen (1854; "The Trumpeter of Sackingen") and historical novel Ekkehard (1855) appealed to sentimental popular taste and made him one of the most widely read German authors of his time.Scheffel's father was a Baden army engineer, and his mother was a poet. At his father's insistence Scheffel was trained in law at the universities of Munich, Heidelberg, and Berlin and began a career in..
Johann Peter Eckermann, (born Sept. 21, 1792, Winsen, Hanover [now in Germany]--died Dec. 3, 1854, Weimar, Prussia [now in Germany]), German writer, chiefly remembered as the assistant and close associate of the aging author J.W. von Goethe; his Gesprache mit Goethe in den letzten Jahren seines Lebens, 1823-32, 3 vol. (1836-48; "Conversations with Goethe in the Last Years of His Life"), is comparable in importance with James Boswell's Life of Johnson.Reared in great poverty, Eckermann served in the German war of liberation against Napoleon and became a clerk in the war department at Hanover,..
Walter Hasenclever, (born July 8, 1890, Aachen, Ger.--died June 21, 1940, Les Milles, France), German Expressionist poet and dramatist whose work is a protest against bourgeois materialism and the war-making state.After studying briefly at the Universities of Oxford and Lausanne, Hasenclever in 1909 went to the University of Leipzig, where he turned to literature, philosophy, and history. While serving in the German army during World War I, he feigned mental illness and was discharged. After the war he became interested in mysticism, occultism, and Buddhism. He worked from 1924 to 1928..
Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner, (born Sept. 18, 1786, Ludwigsburg, Wurttemberg--died Feb. 21, 1862, Weinsberg), German poet and spiritualist writer. He and the poet Ludwig Uhland founded the so-called Swabian group of late Romantic poets.After the death of his father (1799), Kerner worked in a cloth factory until he was able to study medicine at Tubingen. There he met Uhland and spent most of his time reading and writing poetry. He became a practicing physician and in 1818 settled in Weinsberg, where he frequently entertained the leading poets of the time; he influenced his contemporaries..
Hans Carossa, (born Dec. 15, 1878, Tolz, Ger.--died Sept. 12, 1956, Rittsteig, W.Ger.), poet and novelist who contributed to the development of the German autobiographical novel.Carossa's literary career began with a book of lyric poetry, Stella Mystica (1902; "Mystical Star"), in which a reflective, philosophical attitude dominates the expression of emotions. This attitude of detachment toward his own life and a desire to seek and bring forth the most noble in humankind remains dominant throughout his work. His first novel, Doktor Burgers Ende (1913; "The End of Doctor Burger"; revised..
Rene Schickele, (born Aug. 4, 1883, Oberehnheim, Alsace--died Jan. 31, 1940, Vence, Fr.), German journalist, poet, novelist, and dramatist, whose personal experience of conflict between nations made his work an intense plea for peace and understanding.Schickele was active as a foreign correspondent, editor, and, from 1915 to 1919, as the publisher of the Weissen Blatter ("The White Papers"), which he had transferred from Berlin to Zurich and which he made the most effective mouthpiece of European anti-war sentiment during World War I.Peace and the resolution of cultural and political..
Wilhelm Raabe, pseudonym Jakob Corvinus, (born September 8, 1831, Eschershausen, near Hildesheim, Braunschweig--died November 15, 1910, Braunschweig, Germany), German writer best known for realistic novels of middle-class life.After leaving school in Wolfenbuttel in 1849, Raabe was apprenticed for four years to a Magdeburg book dealer, during which time he read widely. Although he attended lectures at Berlin University, the important product of his time in Berlin was his popular first novel, published under his pseudonym, Die Chronik der Sperlingsgasse (1857; "The Chronicle of..
Hermann Sudermann, (born Sept. 30, 1857, Matziken, East Prussia [now in Lithuania]--died Nov. 21, 1928, Berlin, Ger.), one of the leading writers of the German naturalist movement.Though first apprenticed to a chemist, Sudermann was eventually able to attend the University of Konigsberg. After a short period as a tutor in Berlin, he worked as a journalist, then turned to writing novels. Frau Sorge (1887; Dame Care), dealing with the growing up of a sensitive youth, and Der Katzensteg (1889; Regina) are the best known of his early novels. He won renown, however, with his plays. Die Ehre (Eng...
Karl Gutzkow, (born March 17, 1811, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]--died Dec. 16, 1878, Sachsenhausen, Frankfurt am Main), novelist and dramatist who was a pioneer of the modern social novel in Germany.Gutzkow began his career as a journalist and first attracted attention with the publication of Maha Guru, Geschichte eines Gottes (1833; "Maha Guru, Story of a God"), a fantastic satirical romance. In 1835 he published Wally, die Zweiflerin ("Wally, the Doubter"), an attack on marriage, coloured by religious skepticism, that marked the beginning of the revolt of the Young Germany (q.v.) movement..
Christian Dietrich Grabbe, (born Dec. 11, 1801, Detmold, Westphalia--died Sept. 12, 1836, Detmold), German dramatist whose plays anticipated Expressionism and film technique.Grabbe studied law in Leipzig (1820-22) and made unsuccessful attempts at acting and directing in Berlin. After quarrelling with the poet Heinrich Heine and members of Young Germany (a politically radical literary movement) and failing in attempts to get help from the Romantic writer Ludwig Tieck, he became a solicitor and then a military justiciary in Detmold. He was unhappily married in 1833 and was fired from..
Theodor Fontane, (born December 30, 1819, Neuruppin, Brandenburg [Germany]--died September 20, 1898, Berlin), writer who is considered the first master of modern realistic fiction in Germany.He began his literary career in 1848 as a journalist, serving for several years in England as correspondent for two Prussian newspapers. From this position he wrote several books on English life, including Ein Sommer in London (1854; "A Summer in London") and Jenseits des Tweed (1860; Across the Tweed: A Tour of Mid-Victorian Scotland). From 1860 to 1870 he wrote for the conservative newspaper Kreuzzeitung,..
Joseph von Gorres, in full Johann Joseph von Gorres, (born Jan. 25, 1776, Koblenz, archbishopric of Trier [Germany]--died Jan. 29, 1848, Munich, Bavaria), German Romantic writer who was one of the leading figures of Roman Catholic political journalism.Gorres was sympathetic to the ideals of the French Revolution and published a republican journal, Das rote Blatt ("The Red Page"; renamed Rubezahl), in 1799. After an unsuccessful visit to Paris in 1799 as a political negotiator for the Rhenish provinces, he became disillusioned and withdrew from active politics. He taught natural science..
Willibald Alexis, pseudonym of Georg Wilhelm Heinrich Haring, (born June 29, 1798, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia [now Wroclaw, Pol.]--died Dec. 16, 1871, Arnstadt, Ger.), German writer and critic best known for his historical novels about Brandenburg and Prussia.Alexis grew up in Berlin. After service as a volunteer in the campaign of 1815, he studied law at Berlin and Breslau but abandoned his legal career for writing after the success of his literary hoax Walladmor (1824), a parody of Scott published as "freely translated from the English of Walter Scott." The joke, detrimental to Alexis'..
Bettina von Arnim, byname of Elisabeth Katharina Ludovica Magdalena von Arnim, nee Brentano, (born April 4, 1785, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]--died Jan. 20, 1859, Berlin, Prussia), one of the outstanding figures of German Romanticism, memorable not only for her books but also for the personality they reflect. All of her writings, whatever their ostensible themes, are essentially self-portraits.Von Arnim was unconventional to the point of eccentricity; wayward, yet a loyal wife (she married Achim von Arnim in 1811) and a devoted mother to her seven children; susceptible and passionate,..
Friedrich Nicolai, in full Christoph Friedrich Nicolai, (born March 18, 1733, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]--died Jan. 8, 1811, Berlin), writer and bookseller who, with Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn, was a leader of the German Enlightenment (Aufklarung) and who, as editor of the reformist journal Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek ("German General Library"), was critical of such younger writers as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich von Schiller.Nicolai went to Frankfurt an der Oder, where he learned his father's bookselling business and became acquainted with English..
Gustav Freytag, (born July 13, 1816, Kreuzburg, Silesia, Prussia [now Kluczbork, Poland]--died April 30, 1895, Wiesbaden, Germany), German writer of realistic novels celebrating the merits of the middle classes.After studying philology at Breslau and Berlin, Freytag became Privatdozent (lecturer) in German literature at the University of Breslau (1839), but he resigned after eight years to devote himself to writing. He was much excited by the revolutions of 1848 and became, with Julian Schmidt, joint editor of the Leipzig weekly Die Grenzboten, which he made into the leading organ of..
Peter Weiss, in full Peter Ulrich Weiss, (born Nov. 8, 1916, Nowawes, near Potsdam, Ger.--died May 10, 1982, Stockholm, Swed.), German dramatist and novelist whose plays achieved widespread success in both Europe and the United States in the 1960s.The son of a textile manufacturer who was Jewish by origin but Christian by conversion, Weiss was brought up a Lutheran. In 1934 he and his family were forced into exile by Nazi persecution. He lived in England, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia before settling, in 1939, in Sweden. He painted and made films (which showed the influence of the Surrealists)..
Friedrich von Schlegel, (born March 10, 1772, Hannover, Hanover--died Jan. 12, 1829, Dresden, Saxony), German writer and critic, originator of many of the philosophical ideas that inspired the early German Romantic movement. Open to every new idea, he reveals a rich store of projects and theories in his provocative Apercus and Fragmente (contributed to the Athenaum and other journals); his conception of a universal, historical, and comparative literary scholarship has had profound influence.Schlegel was a nephew of the author Johann Elias Schlegel. After studying at Gottingen and Leipzig,..
Gerhart Hauptmann, in full Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann, (born November 15, 1862, Bad Salzbrunn, Silesia, Prussia [now Szczawno-Zdroj, Poland]--died June 6, 1946, Agnetendorf, Germany [now Jagniatkow, Poland]), German playwright, poet, and novelist who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1912.Hauptmann was born in a then-fashionable Silesian resort town, where his father owned the main hotel. He studied sculpture from 1880 to 1882 at the Breslau Art Institute and then studied science and philosophy at the university in Jena (1882-83). He worked as a sculptor in Rome..
Levin Schucking, (born Sept. 6, 1814, Clemenswerth, W.Ger. [now Germany]--died Aug. 31, 1883, Pyrmont, near Munster), writer, author of many popular novels, most of which have a Westphalian setting and some of which show the influence of the Scottish Romantic novelist Sir Walter Scott. His works, however, have fallen into comparative oblivion.After studying law, Schucking settled in Munster, devoting himself to literature. He was a tutor to the princes of Wrede and was on the editorial staff of the Allgemeine Zeitung in Augsburg, subsequently joining that of the Kolnischen Zeitung in Cologne..
Hans Hellmut Kirst, (born Dec. 5, 1914, Osterode, Ger. --died Feb. 23, 1989, Bremen, W.Ger.), West German novelist who wrote more than 40 popular novels, mainly political thrillers and military satires.Kirst served in the German army (1933-45), rising to the rank of first lieutenant during World War II. Disillusioned by his military experiences, he turned to fiction with the anti-Nazi novel Wir nannten ihn Galgenstrick (1951; The Lieutenant Must Be Mad). Kirst gained international acclaim for the satiric trilogy Null-acht funfzhen (1954-55; Zero Eight Fifteen), the continuing story..
Johann Klaj, Latin Johannes Clajus, (born 1616, Meissen, Saxony [Germany]--died Feb. 16, 1656, Kitzingen, near Wurzburg, Franconia [Germany]), German poet who helped make mid-17th-century Nurnberg a centre of German literature.Klaj studied theology at the University of Wittenberg and then went to Nurnberg, where, with Georg Philipp Harsdorfer, he founded in 1644 the literary society known as the Pegnesischer Blumenorden ("Pegnitz Order of Flowers"). He taught at Nurnberg, and in 1650 he went as teacher and preacher to Kitzingen. He specialized in pastoral poetry, often using ingenious..
Johann Karl August Musaus, (born March 29, 1735, Jena, Saxony--died Oct. 28, 1787, Weimar), German satirist and writer of fairy tales, remembered for his graceful and delicately ironical versions of popular folktales.Musaus studied theology at Jena but turned instead to literature. His first book, Grandison der Zweite, 3 vol. (1760-62), revised as Der deutsche Grandison (1781-82; "The German Grandison"), was a satire of Samuel Richardson's hero Sir Charles Grandison, who had many sentimental admirers in Germany. In 1763 Musaus was made master of the court pages at Weimar and later (1770)..
Lou Andreas-Salome, (born Feb. 12, 1861, St. Petersburg, Russia--died Feb. 5, 1937, Gottingen, Ger.), Russian-German writer remembered for her friendships with the great men of her day.Salome was the daughter of a Russian army officer of French Huguenot descent. She studied theology at the University of Zurich. In 1882 the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche fell in love with her, but she rejected his proposal of marriage. In 1887 she married the Orientalist Friedrich C. Andreas, a professor at the University of Gottingen. In 1897 she met the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, who was 14 years younger..
Luise Rinser, German writer (born April 30, 1911, Pitzling, Bavaria, Ger.--died March 17, 2002, Unterhaching, Bavaria, Ger.), was a political activist and a prolific author of best-selling novels, essays, short stories, diaries, plays, travel journals, and children's books. She qualified as a teacher in 1934 but lost her job in 1939 because she refused to join the National Socialist (Nazi) Party. She also was barred from writing after the publication of her first novel, Die glasernen Ringe (1940; Rings of Glass, 1958). Imprisoned for treason in 1944, she was freed by the Allies, who gave her..
Max Kretzer, (born June 7, 1854, Posen, East Prussia--died July 15, 1941, Berlin), German Expressionist writer who excelled in describing working conditions of the Berlin industrial proletariat in the 1880s and 1890s.The son of a prosperous innkeeper whose business failed, Kretzer went to work in a factory at the age of 13, educated himself, and began to write when he was 25. Some of his minutely detailed sociological novels are based upon his working experience: Der Fassadenraphael (1911; "The Raphael of the Facades") describes his experience as a sign writer and Der alte Andreas (1911; "Old..
Otto Ludwig, (born February 12, 1813, Eisfeld, Thuringia [Germany]--died February 25, 1865, Dresden, Saxony), German novelist, playwright, and critic, remembered for his realistic stories, which contributed to the development of the Novelle. He coined the expression poetischer Realismus ("poetic Realism"), later used to describe the writing of many of his contemporaries.Although expected to follow a mercantile career, Ludwig early became interested in poetry and music and in 1838 produced an opera, Die Kohlerin. He studied under Felix Mendelssohn at Leipzig (1839), but ill health..
Friedrich von Logau, in full Friedrich, Freiherr von (baron of) Logau, pseudonym Salomon von Golaw, (born June 1604, Brockuth, near Nimptsch, Silesia [now Brochocin, Poland]--died July 24, 1655, Liegnitz [now Legnica, Poland]), German epigrammatist noted for his direct unostentatious style.Logau was of noble descent and became an orphan early. He spent his life in service to the petty courts of Brieg and Liegnitz. Logau resented the forced lowliness of his position, and he directed much of his satirical wit at courtly life, particularly at the falsity of foreign (primarily French) cultural..
Justus Moser, (born Dec. 14, 1720, Osnabruck, Munster [now in Lower Saxony, Germany]--died Jan. 8, 1794, Osnabruck), German political essayist and poet who was a forerunner of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") movement.Trained in jurisprudence at the Universities of Jena and Gottingen, Moser was named state's attorney at Osnabruck (1747), a prince-bishopric, and from 1764 he was very influential as an adviser to the estates and government. Moser also served as chief justice of the criminal court (1762-68), privy councillor of justice (1768), and councillor of justice (1783).In..
Fanny Lewald, (born March 24, 1811, Konigsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia]--died Aug. 5, 1889, Dresden, Ger.), popular German novelist and feminist who wrote mainly on family, marriage, and social problems.She first began writing at the age of 30 with the encouragement of her cousin August Lewald, a journalist and editor. The novels Clementine (1842) and Jenny (1843) describe circumscribed lives built around family virtues. Die Familie Darner, 3 vol. (1888; "The Darner Family"), and Von Geschlecht zu Geschlecht, 8 vol. (1863-65; "From Generation to Generation"), are realistic..
Wolfgang Borchert, (born May 20, 1921, Hamburg, Ger.--died Nov. 20, 1947, Basel, Switz.), playwright and short-story writer who gave voice to the anguish of the German soldier after World War II.As a young man Borchert wrote several plays and a large number of poems, but he was determined to be an actor. In 1941 he was drafted into the army. The rigours of his army service resulted in jaundice, frostbite, malnutrition, and progressive liver degeneration. He spent much of his military career in jail, accused of self-mutilation (he lost a finger). From his cell he wrote anti-Nazi letters and mocked..
Gottfried Benn, (born May 2, 1886, Mansfeld, Ger.--died July 7, 1956, Berlin), German poet and essayist whose expressionistic pessimism and conjurations of decay in the period immediately after World War I gradually mellowed into a philosophy of pragmatism. He was perhaps the most significant poet in post-World War II Germany.The son of a Lutheran clergyman, Benn studied theology at the University of Marburg, then transferred to the academy there for military-medical instruction and became a specialist in venereal and skin diseases. He took medical jobs on cruise ships, got to know the..
Leonhard Frank, (born Sept. 4, 1882, Wurzburg, Ger.--died Aug. 18, 1961, Munich, W.Ger.), German Expressionist novelist and playwright who used sensationalism and a compact and austere prose to dramatize a favourite theme--the destruction of the individual spirit by bourgeois society.After studying painting in Munich in 1904 and working as a commercial artist, Frank turned to literature. In 1914 his open opposition to World War I forced him to flee to Switzerland. The same year he published his first book, Die Rauberbande (1914; The Robber Band). The story of rebellious young boys who seek..
Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, (born January 12, 1751, Sesswegen, Livonia, Russian Empire [now Cesvaine, Latvia]--found dead May 24, 1792, Moscow, Russia), Russian-born German poet and dramatist of the Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) period, who is considered an important forerunner of 19th-century naturalism and of 20th-century theatrical Expressionism.Lenz studied theology at Konigsberg University but gave up his studies in 1771 to travel to Strasbourg as a tutor and companion to two young barons von Kleist. In Strasbourg he became a member of Goethe's circle and was strongly influenced..