William Inge, in full William Motter Inge, (born May 3, 1913, Independence, Kan., U.S.--died June 10, 1973, Hollywood Hills, Calif.), American playwright best known for his plays Come Back, Little Sheba (1950; filmed 1952); Picnic (1953; filmed 1956), for which he won a Pulitzer Prize; and Bus Stop (1955; filmed 1956).Inge was educated at the University of Kansas at Lawrence and at the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville, Tenn. He taught school from 1937 to 1949, also serving as drama editor of the Star-Times in St. Louis, Mo., from 1943 to 1946. His first play, Farther Off from Heaven..
Phillips Brooks, (born Dec. 13, 1835, Boston, Mass., U.S.--died Jan. 23, 1893, Boston), American Episcopal clergyman renowned as a preacher.A member of a wealthy old Brahmin family of New England, Brooks attended Harvard University (1851-55) and taught briefly at the Boston Latin School before attending the Episcopal Seminary at Alexandria, Va., being ordained there on July 1, 1859. The following month he began his ministry at the Church of the Advent in Philadelphia, where his impressive personality and eloquence won crowds of admirers. Three years later he became rector of Holy Trinity..
Edward Everett Hale, (born April 3, 1822, Boston, Mass., U.S.--died June 10, 1909, Roxbury, Mass.), American clergyman and author best remembered for his short story "The Man Without a Country."A grandnephew of the Revolutionary hero Nathan Hale and a nephew of Edward Everett, the orator, Hale trained on his father's newspaper, the Boston Daily Advertiser, and turned early to writing. For 70 years newspaper articles, historical essays, short stories, pamphlets, sermons, and novels poured from his pen in such journals as the North American Review, The Atlantic Monthly, and Christian Examiner...
Thomas Ken, (born July 1637, Berkhampsted, Hertfordshire, England--died March 19, 1711, near Warminster, Wiltshire), Anglican bishop, hymn writer, royal chaplain to Charles II of England, and one of seven bishops who in 1688 opposed James II's Declaration of Indulgence, which was designed to promote Roman Catholicism.Ordained about 1661, Ken held several ecclesiastical positions until 1669, when he became a prebendary of Winchester Cathedral. In 1679 Ken was appointed chaplain to Princess Mary of York, wife of Prince William of Orange and daughter of James, duke of York, who later became..
Charles Wesley, (born Dec. 18, 1707, Epworth, Lincolnshire, Eng.--died March 29, 1788, London), English clergyman, poet, and hymn writer, who, with his elder brother John, started the Methodist movement in the Church of England.The youngest and third surviving son of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, Wesley entered Westminster School, London, in 1716. In 1726 he was elected to Christ Church College, Oxford, where he translated Greek and Latin classics into English verse. During the winter of 1728-29, he underwent a spiritual awakening and initiated, with two other undergraduates, the Holy Club...
John Keble, (born April 25, 1792, Fairford, Gloucestershire, Eng.--died March 29, 1866, Bournemouth, Hampshire), Anglican priest, theologian, and poet who originated and helped lead the Oxford Movement (q.v.), which sought to revive in Anglicanism the High Church ideals of the later 17th-century church.Ordained in 1816, Keble was educated at the University of Oxford and served as a tutor there from 1818 to 1823, when he left to assist in his father's parish. In 1827 he published The Christian Year, a volume of poems for Sundays and festivals of the church year. Widely circulated, the book..
Joseph Hall, (born July 1, 1574, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire, Eng.--died Sept. 8, 1656, Higham, Norfolk), English bishop, moral philosopher, and satirist, remarkable for his literary versatility and innovations.Hall's Virgidemiarum: Six Books (1597-1602; "A Harvest of Blows") was the first English satire successfully modeled on Latin satire, and its couplets anticipated the satiric heroic couplets of John Dryden in the late 17th century. Hall was also the first writer in English to emulate Theophrastus, an ancient Greek philosopher who wrote a book of characters, with Characters..
Thomas Fuller, (born June 19, 1608, Aldwincle, Northamptonshire, Eng.--died Aug. 16, 1661, London), British scholar, preacher, and one of the most witty and prolific authors of the 17th century.Fuller was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge (M.A., 1628; B.D., 1635). Achieving great repute in the pulpit, he was appointed preacher at the Chapel Royal, Savoy, London, in 1641. He officiated there until 1643, when the deteriorating political situation, which had led to the first battles of the English Civil Wars a year before, forced him to leave London for Oxford.For a time during the fighting,..
Charles Kingsley, (born June 12, 1819, Holne Vicarage, Devon, England--died January 23, 1875, Eversley, Hampshire), Anglican clergyman and writer whose successful fiction ranged from social-problem novels to historical romances and children's literature.The son of a clergyman, he grew up in Devon, where he developed an interest in nature study and geology. After graduating from Magdalene College, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1842 as curate of Eversley and two years later became parish priest there. Much influenced by the theologian Frederick Denison Maurice, he became in 1848 a founding..
Sydney Smith, (born June 3, 1771, Woodford, Essex, Eng.--died Feb. 22, 1845, London), one of the foremost English preachers of his day, and a champion of parliamentary reform. Through his writings he perhaps did more than anyone else to change public opinion regarding Roman Catholic emancipation. Smith was also famous for his wit and charm.Smith's father refused to let him study law, and after leaving Oxford he was ordained in the Church of England. He later attended lectures in moral philosophy, chemistry, and medicine at the University of Edinburgh. There he made many friends, among them..
Norman Vincent Peale, (born May 31, 1898, Bowersville, Ohio, U.S.--died December 24, 1993, Pawling, New York), influential and inspirational American religious leader who, after World War II, tried to instill a spiritual renewal in the United States with his sermons, public-speaking events, broadcasts, newspaper columns, and books. He encouraged millions with his 1952 best seller, The Power of Positive Thinking.Peale's father was a Methodist preacher. The family moved frequently among various towns in Ohio as Peale was growing up, and he took after-school jobs to add to the family's..
Francois Rabelais, pseudonym Alcofribas Nasier, (born c. 1494, Poitou, France--died probably April 9, 1553, Paris), French writer and priest who for his contemporaries was an eminent physician and humanist and for posterity is the author of the comic masterpiece Gargantua and Pantagruel. The four novels composing this work are outstanding for their rich use of Renaissance French and for their comedy, which ranges from gross burlesque to profound satire. They exploit popular legends, farces, and romances, as well as classical and Italian material, but were written primarily for a court..
John Bunyan, (born November 1628, Elstow, Bedfordshire, England--died August 31, 1688, London), celebrated English minister and preacher, author of The Pilgrim's Progress (1678), the book that was the most characteristic expression of the Puritan religious outlook. His other works include doctrinal and controversial writings; a spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding (1666); and the allegory The Holy War (1682).Early lifeBunyan, the son of a brazier, or traveling tinker, was brought up "among a multitude of poor plowmen's children" in the heart of England's agricultural Midlands...
Charles Simeon, (born Sept. 24, 1759, Reading, Berkshire, Eng.--died Nov. 13, 1836, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire), Anglican clergyman and biblical commentator who led the Evangelical (or Low Church) movement, in reaction to the liturgically and episcopally oriented High Church party.Simeon was educated at King's College, Cambridge, where he became vice provost (1790-92). In 1782 he was presented to the living of Trinity Church, Cambridge, where he remained until his death. Renowned as a preacher, Simeon helped found the Church Missionary Society (1797) and assisted the newly founded..
John Bachman, (born Feb. 4, 1790, Rhinebeck, N.Y., U.S.--died Feb. 24, 1874, Columbia, S.C.), naturalist and Lutheran minister who helped write the text of works on North American birds and mammals by renowned naturalist and artist John James Audubon.Ordained in 1814, Bachman obtained a parish in Charleston, S.C., the following year. Long a natural-history enthusiast, he published studies of southern animals and works on botany and agriculture. He met Audubon in 1831 and helped him write the text of The Birds of America (1840-44). After visiting the German naturalist and explorer Alexander..
Samuel Hopkins, (born Sept. 17, 1721, Waterbury, Conn. [U.S.]--died Dec. 20, 1803, Newport, R.I.), American theologian and writer who was one of the first Congregationalists to oppose slavery.After studying divinity in Northampton, Mass., with the Puritan theologian Jonathan Edwards, in whose home he lived, Hopkins was ordained (1743) as minister of the Congregational Church at Housatonic (now Great Barrington), Mass. He served there until 1769, but his reputation as an inept preacher, combined with his unorthodox attitudes toward church membership and baptism, led to his dismissal...
Robert Southwell, (born 1561, Horsham St. Faith, Norfolk, Eng.--died March 4, 1595, London), English poet and martyr remembered for his saintly life as a Jesuit priest and missionary during a time of Protestant persecution and for his religious poetry.Southwell was educated at Jesuit colleges in France and in Rome. In 1585 he was ordained priest and made prefect of studies at the English College at Rome. He returned to England as a missionary in 1586, when he became chaplain to Anne Howard and spiritual adviser to her husband, the 1st Earl of Arundel, a recusant imprisoned in the Tower of London...
Thomas Traherne, (born 1637, Hereford, Eng.--died 1674, Teddington), last of the mystical poets of the Anglican clergy, which included most notably George Herbert and Henry Vaughan.The son of a shoemaker, Traherne was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, ordained in 1660, and presented in 1661 to the living of Credenhill, which he held until 1674. From 1669 to 1674 Traherne lived in London and Teddington, serving as chaplain to Sir Orlando Bridgeman, lord keeper from 1667 to 1672. That year he became minister of Teddington Church, where he was buried when he died two years later.The only..
Jeremy Collier, (born Sept. 23, 1650, Stow by Quy, Cambridgeshire, Eng.--died April 26, 1726, London), English bishop and leader of the Nonjurors (clergy who refused to take the oaths of allegiance to William III and Mary II in 1689 and who set up a schismatic episcopalian church) and the author of a celebrated attack on the immorality of the stage.Collier attended Caius College, Cambridge, in 1669 and was ordained priest in 1677. He became chaplain to the countess dowager of Dorset and in 1679 rector of Ampton, near Bury St. Edmunds. He was made lecturer of Gray's Inn in 1685 but resigned at the Glorious..
Richard Adams, in full Richard George Adams, (born May 9, 1920, Wash Common, Berkshire [now West Berkshire], England--died December 24, 2016), English author known for reinvigorating the genre of anthropomorphic fiction, most notably with the beloved children's book Watership Down (1972; film 1978), a novel that presents a naturalistic tale of the travails of a group of wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) seeking a new home.Adams was raised in a rural community outside Newbury, Berkshire, where he led an isolated childhood mostly occupied by exploring his bucolic surroundings...
Daniel Berrigan, in full Daniel Joseph Berrigan, (born May 9, 1921, Virginia, Minnesota, U.S.--died April 30, 2016, Bronx, New York), American writer, Roman Catholic priest, and antiwar activist whose poems and essays reflect his deep commitment to social, political, and economic change in American society.Berrigan, who grew up in Syracuse, New York, earned a bachelor's degree from a Jesuit novitiate in Hyde Park, New York, and a master's degree from Woodstock (Maryland) College. He taught at a preparatory school in New Jersey before being ordained a priest in 1952. He later served in various..