Granville Hicks, (born Sept. 9, 1901, Exeter, N.H., U.S.--died June 18, 1982, Franklin Park, N.J.), critic, novelist, and teacher who was one of the foremost practitioners of Marxist criticism in American literature.After graduating from Harvard University with the highest honours and studying two years for the ministry, Hicks joined the Communist Party in 1934. As literary editor of the New Masses, he became one of the party's chief cultural spokesmen. His book The Great Tradition (1933; rev. ed. 1935) evaluated American literature since the Civil War from a Marxist point of view.Hicks..
Philip Rahv, (born March 10, 1908, Kupin, Ukraine, Russian Empire--died Dec. 22, 1973, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.), Ukrainian-born American critic who was cofounder (1933) with William Phillips of The Partisan Review, a journal of literature and social thought.Rahv emigrated to the United States in 1922 and contributed to The New Masses, The Nation, The New Republic, and The New Leader. He wrote Fourteen Essays on Literary Themes (1949; enlarged, 1957). He edited many books, including The Partisan Reader (1946, with Phillips), The Discovery of Europe: The Story of the American Experience..
W.C. Brownell, in full William Crary Brownell, (born August 30, 1851, New York, New York, U.S.--died July 22, 1928, Williamstown, Massachusetts), critic who sought to expand the scope of American literary criticism as Matthew Arnold had for British.After graduating from Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, in 1871, Brownell joined the New York World, becoming city editor in a year. After serving on The Nation from 1879 to 1881, he became editor and literary adviser to Charles Scribner's Sons, a New York publisher, in 1888, remaining there until his death. His first two books, French..
Elisabeth Luther Cary, (born May 18, 1867, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.--died July 13, 1936, Brooklyn), American art and literary critic, best remembered as art critic of The New York Times during the first quarter of the 20th century.Cary was educated at home by her father, a newspaper editor, and for 10 years she studied painting with local teachers. She became deeply interested in literature and began her career by publishing three translations from the French: Recollections of Middle Life (1893) by Francisque Sarcey, Russian Portraits (1895) by E. Melchior de Vogue, and The Land of Tawny Beasts..
Clement Greenberg, (born Jan. 16, 1909, Bronx, N.Y., U.S.--died May 7, 1994, New York, N.Y.), American art critic who advocated a formalist aesthetic. He is best known as an early champion of Abstract Expressionism.Greenberg was born to parents of Lithuanian Jewish descent. He attended high school in Brooklyn, and in the mid 1920s he took art classes at the Art Students' League in New York City before attending Syracuse University, where he received a bachelor's degree in languages and literature in 1930. Back in New York City in 1938, he heard Hans Hofmann lecture about modern European art...